Election 2019: Who are the Scots who won't vote?

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About a third of the record four million people across Scotland who are registered to vote in next Thursday’s general election are not expected to do so.

Many simply won’t get round to voting this time, while others have never voted.

But with disillusionment with politics and politicians said to be on the rise, some say they no longer want to endorse what they they claim is a broken system.

‘Politicians don’t understand the struggles of common people’

Image copyright Clair Ellis

Clair Ellis, from Armadale in West Lothian, has been unemployed, homeless and a single parent at different points in her life.

The 37-year-old says those experiences shaped her view that politics is a “circus” that does little to actually improve people’s lives – and that politicians with “lavish lifestyles” are out of touch with the struggles faced by many of their constituents.

Ms Ellis believes many promises the parties make before elections are little more than attempts to bribe voters, and that they will “hardly ever come to pass”.

And she argues that the failure to deliver Brexit more than three years after the referendum shows that the electorate have “no control” and that votes can be “overturned at the drop of a hat”.

For her, not voting has therefore become a deliberate choice, a political act in itself, rather than apathy.

Ms Ellis said: “I think the very act of voting now is only to give us the sense that we have some sort of control. In the end they all just do what they want.

“A lot of people say women died for our right [to vote]. I don’t doubt it – but they died in vain if you ask me.”

‘The parties are all as bad as each another’

Image copyright Getty Images
Image caption A spoiled ballot paper from the 2016 Scottish Parliament election

Carly Frame, 32, has always voted in the past – although she says she has never been committed to a single party – but says she has already decided not to this time.

“I don’t think there’s a difference between any of the parties now, they’re all as bad as one another”, she insists.

“They don’t care about the public. No matter who you vote for it’s going to be wasted – particularly in Westminster under first past the post.”

Her view of politics has also been soured by the Brexit process, which she believes has left politicians of all parties ignoring the day-to-day issues that are actually important to people, such as the NHS and the environment.

And she believes politicians will “just keeping holding election or referendums” until they get the result they want.

Ms Frame, from Hamilton, says: “I feel my vote stands for nothing because I voted for Brexit and I voted [for Scotland] to remain in the UK.

“If either referendum result had gone different, I wouldn’t be out campaigning for a new referendum because it didn’t go my way. I’m sick of politicians trying to derail the results.”

Does it matter that people don’t vote?

Image copyright Rachael Farrington
Image caption Rachael Farrington says change will never happen unless people turn out to vote

Recent research by the BBC showed that number of non-voters was greater than the sitting MP’s majority in 551 out of the 650 constituencies at last election in 2017.

In other words, the result of the election could potentially have been very different indeed if everyone had turned up.

Of the 10 seats across the UK with the lowest turnouts, four were in Glasgow – including Glasgow North East, which was the lowest of all at just 53%.

And with many seats in Scotland won by a few hundred votes or less – and one by only two votes – the last time, it can genuinely be said that every vote could count on 12 December.

What are the parties promising you?

Select an issue to see policies

Conservative

* Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January * £20.5bn additional funding for the NHS in England by 2023-24, 50 million more GP appointments and 50,000 more nurses * 20,000 more police officers over the next three years in England and Wales * No rises in income tax, National Insurance contributions or VAT * Introduce an Australian-style points-based immigration system, which treats everyone equally regardless of where they come from

* £400bn national transformation fund, including £250bn for energy, transport and the environment, and £150bn for schools, hospitals and housing * £75bn for 100,000 new council homes a year by 2024 and 50,000 affordable homes a year through Housing Associations * Free full-fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030 * £10-an-hour minimum wage for all workers * Hold another referendum on Brexit

Liberal Democrats

* Stop Brexit, which the party argues will release money to be spent on public services over the next five years * £20bn a year for five years to tackle climate change * 1p rise in income tax to invest in health and social care, allowing the NHS budget to be increased by £26bn a year by 2023-24 * Recruit 20,000 more teachers and increase schools funding by £10.6bn a year by 2024/25 * £130bn investment in infrastructure

Independent Group for Change

* Hold another referendum on Brexit, campaigning for Remain * Achieve carbon net zero by 2045 * Transition away from the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2030 and phase out non-essential plastics by 2025

Green Party

* £100bn a year for a decade to tackle climate change – mainly paid for by borrowing * Net-zero carbon emissions in the UK by 2030 * Pursue a “green new deal” including a “structural transformation” of the way the economy works * Create more than a million new jobs through green investment * Introduce a People’s Vote Bill to implement another referendum on Brexit – will campaign to Remain

Brexit Party

* Leave all institutions of the EU and restore the primacy of UK law * Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deals the bloc has with Canada and Japan, with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 * Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck * £200bn spending programme on infrastructure, wi-fi and services for young people

* Leave the EU immediately with no deal * Cut immigration to low, sustainable levels * £5.4bn a year for 30,000 more doctors and 40,000 more nurses * Education in schools to focus on making the UK self-sufficient

Plaid Cymru

* Second referendum on Brexit * Devote an extra 1% of GDP to green investment over 10 years, giving Wales a share worth £15bn * £20bn for a Welsh “green jobs revolution”, investing in renewable energy, transport infrastructure and digital services * Lift children out of poverty via new payments for children in low-income families, and a “once in a generation” £300m boost for education

Scottish National Party

* Referendum on Scottish independence in 2020 * Keep Scotland in the EU, single market and customs union – options include a referendum with Remain on the ballot paper if needed * Greater powers for the Scottish Parliament * End austerity * Introduce an NHS Protection Bill to block UK governments from using the NHS in trade talks

Alliance Party

* Oppose hard Brexit and support a second referendum * Restore Stormont Assembly * Invest in health care, education and skills

Democratic Unionist Party

* Defend the Union and oppose a border poll * Respect the result of the EU referendum and support a Brexit where Great Britain and Northern Ireland leave together * Oppose the backstop and any trade barriers between Great Britain and Northern Ireland * More and better jobs through extra powers and city deals for all of Northern Ireland

* Secure a date for a referendum on a united Ireland * Oppose Brexit * Achieve a zero-carbon society

* Revoke Article 50 * Restore power sharing and get Stormont working again * Reform the benefits system * Tackle the climate emergency and move to a carbon neutral economy by 2030 * Pursue justice, truth and accountability for victims of NI’s Troubles

Ulster Unionist Party

* Prioritise the union of the UK over Brexit * Remain in the EU if the choice is between that or Boris Johnson’s Brexit deal * Move to direct rule if devolution is not restored by mid-January * Declare a healthcare emergency * Oppose the creation of the Historical Investigations Unit to investigate Troubles-era offences

Conservative

* Deliver Brexit with the deal agreed with the EU * 20,000 more police officers over the next three years in England and Wales * Additional money for schools and hospitals in England may mean more money in the budget of the National Assembly for Wales, but it would be up to the Welsh Government to decide how it is spent * Hundreds of millions of pounds for Wales to invest in transport, broadband and improving communities * Marches Growth Deal to improve infrastructure supporting the economy on the Wales-England border

* More money for Wales to invest in the NHS, education, local government and the police * Green “industrial revolution”, investing in good, unionised green jobs across the country * Scrap the public sector pay cap * Invest in infrastructure projects across Wales, include building a Swansea Bay tidal lagoon and a new nuclear power station on Anglese * Introduce a real living wage of at least £10 an hour for all ages

Liberal Democrats

* Stop Brexit * Tackle climate change with support for renewable energy, home insulation, energy positive homes, and green transport * Education funding in England will mean more money for Wales

Green Party

* Urgent action on climate change and biodiversity * “Fairer” funding for Wales, reversing public sector cuts * A referendum on any Brexit deal

Brexit Party

* Leave all institutions of the EU and restore the primacy of UK law * Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deals the bloc has with Canada and Japan, with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 * Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck * £200bn spending programme on infrastructure, wi-fi and services for young people * Invest £12bn in Wales out of the £200bn invested across the UK over a five-year parliamentary term

Scottish Conservatives

* Oppose a second referendum on independence * Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January * Additional £3.1bn funding for Scotland over four years as a consequence of investments in England * No rises in National Insurance contributions or VAT * Introduce an Australian-style points-based immigration system, which treats everyone equally regardless of where they come from

Scottish Labour

* Renegotiate a Brexit deal within three months and hold a public vote within six months, with the negotiated deal alongside Remain on the ballot paper * Oppose a second referendum on Scottish independence during “early years” of Labour government * Invest about £100bn of additional resources in Scotland over the next 10 years * Free full fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030 * £10bn towards funding 120,000 council and social homes in Scotland over the next 10 years, and £6bn for retrofitting houses across Scotland to make them more energy efficient

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Stop Brexit, which the party argues will release money to invest in public services and tackle inequality * Oppose a second referendum on independence * Improve mental health services

Brexit Party

* Leave all institutions of the EU and restore the primacy of UK law * Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deals the bloc has with Canada and Japan, with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 * Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck * £200bn spending programme on infrastructure, wi-fi and services for young people

Scottish Greens

* Tackle the “climate emergency” * Invest in the country through a “Green New Deal” * Stop Brexit * Support a second referendum on Scottish independence

People Before Profit

* Scrap welfare reforms include PIP, Universal Credit and the bedroom tax * Vote against any Conservative Brexit deal and oppose a hard border or no-deal scenario * Tackle the climate crisis * Develop a state-owned National Childcare Agency * End the public sector pay freeze

Green Party

* Prioritise climate change over Brexit * Restore Stormont Assembly and executive * Wealth tax of 2% per year introduced for the wealthiest 1% of people

Conservative

* Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January * Negotiate free trade agreement with EU to come into force in 2021 * Will not extend the transition period after the UK’s departure beyond December 2020 * End to freedom of movement between the EU and the UK and a new points-based immigration system * Negotiate free trade agreements with other trading partners around the world

* Renegotiate a Brexit deal within three months and hold a public vote within six months, with the negotiated deal alongside Remain on the ballot paper * Negotiate UK-wide customs union membership, close single market alignment and guarantees on workers’ rights and environmental protections * Any agreement must meet the UK’s international obligations, particularly the Good Friday Agreement * Remove the threat of no-deal

Liberal Democrats

* Oppose Brexit and campaign to Remain in the EU * Revoke Article 50, cancelling Brexit, if elected as a majority government * In other circumstances, campaign for a referendum with the option of staying in the EU on the ballot paper

Independent Group for Change

Put the question of Brexit back to the British people for a “final say” in a referendum, campaigning for the UK to Remain in the EU * Maintain strong alliances with the UK’s closest European and international allies on trade, regulation, defence, security, the environment, aid, and counter-terrorism

Green Party

* Oppose Brexit * Committed to another referendum and will campaign to Remain in the EU in that vote * If the UK stays in the EU, campaign to change the way the bloc works in order to better tackle climate change and deliver rights and opportunities for all citizens

Brexit Party

* Condemn Boris Johnson’s deal as “not Brexit” * Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU – similar to the deal the bloc has with Canada – with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 to get it signed off * Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck

* Leave the EU immediately with no deal * Move to World Trade Organization rules, then negotiate a free trade agreement with EU * Leave the EU common foreign, security and defence policies and bring an end to “EU command and control” of armed forces * Leave the Common Fisheries Policy and rebuild the fishing industry

Plaid Cymru

* Opposed to Brexit and campaigning to Remain in EU * Want a referendum on final Brexit terms

Scottish National Party

* Campaign to prevent Brexit and keep Scotland in the single market and customs union * Support a second EU referendum with Remain as an option * Revoke Article 50 if it is the only alternative to a no-deal Brexit

Alliance Party

* Support another referendum to reconsider Brexit, with remain as an option * The whole of the UK remaining in the single market and customs union * Support a special deal that helps the Northern Ireland economy and defends the Good Friday Agreement

Democratic Unionist Party

* Respect the democratic outcome of the EU referendum * The UK should leave the EU as one country, with no border in the Irish Sea * Push for unfettered market access between Northern Ireland and Great Britain * Work towards a Brexit deal that benefits Northern Ireland

* Oppose Brexit * Retain Common Agriculture Policy funding * Protect the Good Friday Agreement in any future Brexit deal * Special status for Northern Ireland, with no unionist veto * Northern Ireland to automatically re-enter the EU in the event of Irish unification

* Want to revoke Article 50, but will fight for another referendum if necessary, with the option of remaining in the EU * Want to retain free movement of people, goods and services and maintain the common travel area after Brexit * Oppose any hardening of the Irish border in violation of the Good Friday Agreement * Want to secure human and workers’ rights and protections derived from EU legislation and ensure NI continues to receive EU funding

Ulster Unionist Party

* Prioritise the union of the UK over Brexit * Remain in the EU if the choice is between that or Boris Johnson’s Brexit deal * If Britain leaves the EU, it should leave as one country

Conservative

* Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January * Negotiate free trade agreement with EU to come into force in 2021 * Will not extend the transition period after the UK’s departure beyond December 2020 * End to freedom of movement between the EU and the UK and a new points-based immigration system * Negotiate free trade agreements with other trading partners around the world

* Renegotiate a Brexit deal and legislate for a public vote to take place within six months, with the choice of a “sensible leave deal” or Remain * Welsh Labour will campaign to Remain in that referendum * Remove the threat of no-deal

Liberal Democrats

* Oppose Brexit and campaign to remain in the EU * Revoke Article 50, cancelling Brexit, if elected as a majority government * In other circumstances, campaign for a referendum with the option of staying in the EU on the ballot paper

Green Party

* Oppose Brexit * Committed to another referendum and will campaign to Remain in the EU in that vote * If the UK stays in the EU, campaign to change the way the bloc works in order to better tackle climate change and deliver rights and opportunities for all citizens

Brexit Party

* Condemn Boris Johnson’s deal as “not Brexit” * Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deal the bloc has with Canada with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 to get it signed off * Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck

Scottish Conservatives

* Deliver Brexit on the deal agreed with the EU * Negotiate Free Trade Agreement with EU to come into force in 2021 * Will not extend the transition period after the UK’s departure beyond 2021 * End to freedom of movement between the EU and the UK and a new points-based immigration system * Negotiate Free Trade Agreements with other trading partners around the world

Scottish Labour

* Renegotiate a Brexit deal within three months and hold a public vote within six months, with the negotiated deal alongside Remain on the ballot paper * Scottish Labour will wholeheartedly back Remain * Negotiate UK-wide customs union membership, close single market allignment and guarantees on workers’ rights and environmental protections * Any agreement to meet the UK’s international obligations, particularly the Good Friday Agreement * Remove the threat of no-deal

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Boost spending on the NHS in England, which would mean extra money coming to Scotland because of the Barnett formula * Transform mental health support, giving it parity with physical health and ending long waits for treatment * Train more mental health professionals and co-locate them with GPs, the police, at A&E and in prisons * Enable the establishment of safe injecting services and heroin-assisted treatment in Glasgow and elsewhere in the UK * Develop a strategy to tackle childhood obesity including restricting the marketing of junk food to children

Brexit Party

* Condemn Boris Johnson’s deal as “not Brexit” * Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU – similar to the deal the bloc has with Canada – with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 to get it signed off * Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck

Scottish Greens

* Support the UK staying in the EU and campaign for Remain if there is another referendum * Put a Withdrawal Agreement back to the people in a referendum, with Remain on the ballot paper * Any Brexit deal must allow freedom of movement * Preservation of EU environmental regulations and those which protect human health, animal welfare, data and workers’ rights * If the UK leaves the EU, indyref2 must be held before the end of any transition period

People Before Profit

* Oppose a no-deal Brexit * Argue Boris Johnson’s deal could entrench sectarianism in the NI Assembly * Oppose a post-Brexit trade deal with the US leading to the erosion of public services

Green Party

* Negotiate access to the EU single market for NI industries * Guarantee the rights of EU citizens living in UK * Ensure free movement of people across UK and Ireland * Maintain current EU environmental, human and workers’ rights protections * A second EU referendum with the option to remain in the EU

Conservative

* £20.5bn additional funding for the NHS in England by 2023-24, with additional money to cover rising pension costs * Build 40 new hospitals over the next 10 years, and give 20 hospitals an extra £1.8bn cash injection * £5bn for social care over five years and develop new long-term plan with cross-party support * 6,000 more GPs in England by 2024-25 and deliver 50,000 more nurses, bringing back nurse bursaries * End hospital parking charges in England for selected patients and NHS staff – costing £78m a year

* £26bn additional funding for the NHS in England by 2023-24, with a focus on cutting waiting times and boosting mental health services * End private provision within the NHS, stop the sale of NHS land and assets and set up a state-run pharmaceutical company * £10.8bn for free personal social care for over-65s * Free prescriptions, dental check-ups, and hospital car parking * Train a new generation of GPs to provide 27 million more GP appointments each year, by increasing training places from 3,500 to 5,000

Liberal Democrats

* 1p rise in income tax to invest in health and social care, allowing the NHS budget to be increased by £26bn a year by 2023-24 * Ringfence funding for mental health services to ensure mental and physical health are treated with equal importance * £10bn from the capital investment budget for equipment and buildings * End the shortage of GPs by 2025 * Create an independent budget monitoring body for health and care, similar to the Office for Budget Responsibility

Independent Group for Change

* Legal right for workers to attend GP or hospital appointments * Health advice services to be made statutory * Role for local government in NHS commissioning * Cross-party commission to address long-term elderly social care finance

Green Party

* Increase funding for the NHS by at least £6bn a year until 2030, with a further £1bn a year to reinstate nursing bursaries * £4.5bn a year to provide free social care for over-65s who need support in their own homes * Expand NHS provision to include dentistry, prescriptions and mental health treatment * Ensure a publicly funded NHS without private sector involvement * Make mental health a much higher priority with increased funding

Brexit Party

* Keep the NHS publicly-owned, with no private provision, and free at the point of use * Abolish hospital targets * 24-hour GP surgeries * Open nursing and midwifery professions to people without a degree and introduce a new nursing qualification in social care

* £2bn extra social care funding per year * End the practice of taking the value of people’s homes into account when assessing who can pay for care * Increase the number of training places for British doctors, nurses and paramedics * Charge all foreign nationals, including EU citizens, for using the NHS * Scrap hospital car parking charges and prescription charges in England

Plaid Cymru

* Train and recruit an additional 1,000 doctors, 5,000 nurses and 100 new dentists for the Welsh NHS in the next decade * Free social care for the elderly through a new national health and social care service

Scottish National Party

* Call for an increase in health spending in England which would result in an increase to the amount of money available for the Scottish NHS * Keep Scotland’s NHS in public hands * Introduce an NHS Protection Bill to block UK governments from using the NHS in trade talks * Lobby the UK government to introduce a supervised drug consumption facility in Scotland

Alliance Party

* The health service should remain universal and free at the point of use * Focus on prevention and early intervention * Make social care free at the point of access * Implement the Bengoa reforms to transform the health service

Democratic Unionist Party

* Create a Royal Commission to provide recommendations for modernising the social care system * Implement the Bengoa report * Reduce bureaucracy by abolishing the Health and Social Care Board * Refocus resources on community and primary care * Achieve greater parity of funding between mental and physical health

* Mental and physical health given equal weighting in the health service * “Fair pay” for health and social care workers * Deliver the Medical School in Magee * Develop all-Ireland health services * Establish fully-staffed primary care teams in GP surgeries

* Oppose any attempts to privatise the health service * Give health service staff a pay rise and ensure they earn the same as their counterparts in Great Britain * Invest in primary care provision and roll out multidisciplinary teams to enhance general practice * Support the development of a medical school at Magee in Londonderry * Increased provisions for north-south healthcare including a joined-up approach to the ambulance service in border areas

Ulster Unionist Party

* Declare a healthcare emergency in Northern Ireland and compel the next government to immediately intervene with special measures * Responsibility for health services should be formally transferred back to Westminster * Ring-fence £1bn previously announced from Barnett formula funding for heatlh care * Borrow an extra £200m in 2020/21 for trusts to undertake additional elective care activity

Conservative

* Cost of care to be capped and people guaranteed to keep £100,000 of assets once care bill paid * Statutory entitlement to carer’s leave for working people * Increase available funding for the Welsh NHS by £1.9bn from 2018-2023 * Build rapid diagnostic centres in North, Mid and South Wales to speed up access and cut visits to hospitals * Double research funding into dementia and speed up trials for new treatments

* Labour-led Welsh governments have introduced free prescriptions, free hospital parking, and presumed consent for organ donation * Continue to invest in NHS staff and stop attempts to undermine their terms and conditions * Oppose any privatisation of the NHS in Wales, which is run by publicly-appointed health boards * NHS Wales to play a key role in making Wales’ public sector carbon neutral by 2030 * More integration with social care, to be funded via a tax or levy, but possibly on a UK-wide basis

Liberal Democrats

* A penny in the pound on income tax, enabling Wales to spend more on the NHS and social services * Mental health made a funding priority * Set up a UK-wide health and social care convention to review the system, with the Welsh Government invited to take part and to work with a Wales-only commission * Introduce a Welsh NHS whistleblowers hotline

Green Party

* Oppose any privatisation of the NHS * Place greater emphasis on community and social care services * More funding for preventative care * More funding for mental health services

Brexit Party

* Invest in the Welsh NHS and social care, with more medical staff and less waste * Discuss ring-fencing the Welsh NHS budget * Ensure the Welsh NHS remains a publicly-owned, comprehensive service and free at the point of use * Build extra GP surgeries

Scottish Conservatives

* £2bn additional funding for Scotland as a result of additional funding for the NHS in England – enough for 5,000 extra nurses and five million more GP appointments, but with the Scottish government to decide on specific spending * Pressure the Scottish government to increase the share of NHS funding going to GPs * Recover the cost of medical treatment from people not resident in the UK * Greater focus on early intervention by encouraging sports participation and a healthy lifestyle * Expand mental health education in Scottish schools

Scottish Labour

* “Huge” increase in NHS funding, paid for by higher taxes on big corporations * Invest in the NHS workforce, increasing places for medical students and improving numbers in GP training * More resources for local surgeries and community services * Abolish all charges for social care at home

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Protect NHS funding, staff and services by stopping Brexit * Transform mental health support, giving it parity with physical health and ending long waits for treatment * Train more mental health professionals and co-locate them with GPs, the police, at A&E and in prisons * Increase investment in primary care and social care to relieve pressure on hospitals

Brexit Party

* Keep the NHS publically-owned, with no private provision, and free at the point of use * Abolish hospital targets * 24-hour GP surgeries * Open nursing and midwifery professions to people without a degree and introduce a new nursing qualification in social care

Scottish Greens

* Support a free at the point of use NHS * Extend principle of free at the point of use to social care * Increase investment in drug and alcohol treatment programmes

People Before Profit

* Against further cuts * End private sector involvement in the care system * GPs to become health service employees

Green Party

* Oppose privatisation of health care services * Promote community health care * Treat drug addiction as a health problem, not a crime

Conservative

* 20,000 more police officers for England and Wales over the next three years * 10,000 extra prison places and £2.5bn for improving prisons * Criminals imprisoned for four years or more to serve at least two-thirds of their sentence before release * Tougher sentences for violent and sexual offenders as well as animal cruelty * Greater freedom for police to stop and search those known to have carried knives, and anyone caught unlawfully with a knife to be immediately arrested, charged within 24 hours and in court within a week

* Recruit 22,000 more police officers and prioritise neighbourhood policing * Restore prison officer numbers to 2010 levels and bring PFI prisons back into public ownership * Scrap shorter prison sentences and introduce a presumption against prison sentences of six months or less for non-violent offences * Restore legal aid for housing, social security, family and immigration cases and recruit hundreds of new community lawyers * Review the Prevent and Protect programmes

Liberal Democrats

* Invest £1bn in community policing – enough for two new police officers in every ward, plus a 2% pay rise for police officers * Recruit 2,000 more prison officers * Introduce a legal, regulated market for cannabis * Increase the use of non-custodial punishments – curfews, community service and GPS tagging – rather than short prison sentences * Establish a new right to affordable, reasonable legal assistance and invest £500m to restore Legal Aid

Independent Group for Change

* More support in courts for victims and witnesses of crime * New sentencing powers and sanctions tailored to the offence with stronger deterrent measures, such as bans from driving or from social media * New programme of out-of-court mediation for parents who separate, plus compulsory “separating parents information programme”

Green Party

* Scrap the Home Office and replace it with a Ministry for Sanctuary, responsible for migration, and a Ministry of the Interior, which will oversee domestic security * Restrict the use of stop-and-search * Reduce the number of short-term prison sentences, replacing them with restorative justice programmes * Make misogyny a hate crime and strengthen hate crime legislation * End the prohibition of drugs and create a system of legal regulation

Brexit Party

* Increase police officer numbers * Introduce sentence ranges for young offenders to encourage rehabilitation

* Increase police officer numbers by at least 30,000 * Stop policing being a degree-only profession and establish a way of entering via police training colleges * Reverse the privatisation of the prison system and renationalise the probation service * Deport foreign criminals

Plaid Cymru

* Devolution of criminal justice and policing * A new £50m crime prevention fund to recruit 1,600 new police officers * Increase legal aid funding * New laws to protect victims of crime * Establish a national commission to examine changing legislation on drug dependency

Scottish National Party

* Continue to make the case to the UK government to rebate the £140m in VAT charged to Scotland’s emergency services * Encourage the UK government to match the 6.5% increase in police in Scotland reducing the need for Police Scotland to support forces elsewhere * Call for the UK government to devolve control over drug policy to the Scottish Parliament * Introduce a new law to establish emergency protective orders to help the victims of domestic abuse

Alliance Party

* Retain UK participation in the European Arrest Warrant scheme following Brexit * Reduce delays in court cases * Strong opposition to domestic and gendered violence * Extend to Northern Ireland unexplained wealth orders, which compel people to reveal the sources of their unexplained wealth * Continue to support the proposals of the Gillen Review in prosecuting serious sexual offences

Democratic Unionist Party

* Further expansion of problem-solving courts to reduce reoffending and resuce the cost of the justice system * Greater use of Supervised Activity Orders * Increase the number of police officers in Northern Ireland to 7,500 * Extend to Northern Ireland new powers introduced to the Criminal Finances Act in England and Wales * Recovered assets to be invested in local communities

* Prioritise front-line community policing * Tackle domestic violence by outlawing coercive control and behaviour * Strengthen hate crime legislation and define sectarianism in law * Ban the public from attending trials involving serious sexual offences

* Any person convicted of alcohol-related crime must serve at least a community service order, if not a prison sentence. Suspended sentences would be unacceptable * Establish an all-island register for animal-abusers with British and Irish governments * Increase resources for the PSNI * Devlop a domestic violence startegy across government departments to tackle domestic abuse and gender violence

Ulster Unionist Party

* Increase policing numbers to 7,500 full-time officers * Allow the director of public prosecutions to refer lenient sentences for animal abuse to the Court of Appeal * Oppose the creation of the Historical Investigations Unit to investigate Troubles-era offences * Dissident Republicans to be treated as criminals in prison without special privilege * Maximum prison sentences imposed for paramilitary activity and organised crime

Conservative

* 20,000 more police officers for England and Wales over the next three years * 10,000 extra prison places and £2.5bn for improving prisons * Criminals imprisoned for four years or more to serve at least two-thirds of their sentence before release * Tougher sentences for violent and sexual offenders as well as animal cruelty * Greater freedom for police to stop and search those known to have carried knives, and anyone caught unlawfully with a knife to be immediately arrested, charged within 24 hours and in court within a week

* Reverse cuts to prison staff and prisons, improve pay and conditions * Reverse cuts to legal aid * Examine proposed UK Royal Commission on substance misuse * Recruit extra police officers and prioritise neighbourhood policing * Devolve criminal justice and appoint ex-Lord Chief Justice Lord Thomas to head an independent commission to develop the detail

Liberal Democrats

* Create a distinct legal jurisdiction for Wales * Devolve powers over youth justice, probation services, prisons and policing * Invest £1bn across England and Wales to restore community policing, enough for two new police officers in every ward * Abolish police and crime commissioners, replacing them with local boards * Fund a 2% pay rise for police officers

Green Party

* Scrap the Home Office and replace it with a Ministry for Sanctuary, responsible for migration, and a Ministry of the Interior, which will oversee domestic security * Restrict the use of stop-and-search * Reduce the number of short-term prison sentences, replacing them with restorative justice programmes * Make misogyny a hate crime and strengthen hate crime legislation * End the prohibition of drugs and create a system of legal regulation

Brexit Party

* Increase police officer numbers * Introduce sentence ranges for young offenders to encourage rehabilitation * Aim for a 10% increase in police officers in Wales

Scottish Conservatives

* Introduce whole-life sentences * Pass on funding boosts to Police Scotland received as a result of UK government funding for the police in England and Wales * Strengthen the National Crime Agency to counter the threat of serious and organised crime

Scottish Labour

* Extra funding to recruit police officers * More capital funding for Police Scotland * Reform sentencing policy, with a focus on transparency, prioritising public safety and rehabilitation

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Stop Brexit to protect access to international crime-fighting, terrorism and trafficking resources * Increase resources for robust community sentences, reducing the prison population and use of remand * New staff to work with people before and after they leave prison, including on skills, health and housing * Tackle the drug deaths crisis, sending people caught with drugs for their own use to education and treatment rather than prison

Brexit Party

* Increase police officer numbers * Introduce sentence ranges for young offenders to encourage rehabilitation

Scottish Greens

* Address the causes of crime including unemployment, inequality and addiction * Decriminalise drugs to take money away from criminal gangs and support harm reduction * Increase investment in drug and alcohol treatment programmes

People Before Profit

* Support the disbandment of all paramilitary groups * End all punishment shootings * Pursue full accounting for the role of state agents in the Troubles

Green Party

* Introduce early intervention initiatives to tackle the root causes of crime * Raise the age of criminal responsibility * Ensure transgender prisoners are housed in appropriate facilities for their gender * Place a greater focus on domestic and sexual violence and abuse

Conservative

* £7.1bn a year more for schools in England by 2022-23 * £250m a year, for at least three years, plus a £250m capital spending boost for “wraparound” childcare – meaning after school or during holidays * £2bn for further education colleges and establish 20 Institutes of Technology * A new National Skills Fund of £600m a year for five years * Increase teacher starting salaries to £30,000 and overall teachers’ salaries

* Create a national education service, providing all children and adults free education for life * £7.2bn to scrap university tuition fees * Provide free school meals to all primary school children and reduce class sizes to under 30 across all schools in England, recruiting 20,000 extra teachers * Fund 30 hours’ free childcare for all two to four-year-olds and £1bn for 1,000 new early years Sure Start centres * Change tax rules for private schools and consider how they can be further integrated into a comprehensive education system

Liberal Democrats

* Recruit 20,000 more teachers and increase schools funding by £10.6bn a year by 2024/25 * Increase teachers’ starting salaries to £30,000 and guarantee a pay rise of at least 3% a year over the next Parliament * Free school meals for all primary school children and for all secondary school children whose families receive universal credit * £14.6bn for 35 hours a week of childcare for all two to four-year-olds, and for working parents from when their children are nine months * Reinstate maintenance grants for the poorest university students

Independent Group for Change

* Financial literacy to be included in the national curriculum * 20-week funded retraining sabbatical for anyone in need of a mid-career skills boost * Tax break to help those who have retrained with relocation costs if they’re moving for a new job * Tax breaks for successful employers who offer work placements to students about to leave school

Green Party

* Increase funding by at least £4bn a year * Reduce class sizes to under 20 in the long term * 35 hours a week free childcare from the age of nine months * £7.8bn to scrap university tuition fees. Will also write-off existing debt for graduates who have paid fees of £9,000 a year or more * Abolish Ofsted and restore local authority control over education

Brexit Party

* Scrap interest on student loans * Remove the 50% target for young people going into higher education * Ensure all young people have the choice between a high-quality apprenticeship, setting up their own business or pursuing further or higher education

* Encourage the establishment of new grammar schools as well as technical, vocational and specialist secondary schools * Pay off the student loans of British graduates of Stem subjects – science, technology, engineering and mathematics – while they are working in their field in the UK * Reverse the introduction of LGBT-inclusive and sex and relationship education * Encourage fewer university students and more trade apprenticeships * Education in schools to focus on making the UK self-sufficient

Plaid Cymru

* Extra £300m a year for Welsh schools and colleges * New network of specialist vocational education colleges for those aged 14+ in post-compulsory education

Scottish National Party

* Invest £750m to tackle the attainment gap between pupils from the least and most wealthy backgrounds * Give schools more freedom over the curriculum, funding and staffing * A fifth of students entering university to be from the 20% most deprived areas in Scotland by 2030 * Maintain free university tuition at Scottish universities * Expand childcare to 30 hours per week for all three and four-year-olds and vulnerable two-year-olds – saving families over £4,500 per child each year

Alliance Party

* Strong support for integrated education * Advocate a range of alternative post-primary pathways * Greater focus on Stem subjects and computer coding

Democratic Unionist Party

* Reform the schools system and introduce a small schools initiative to ensure isolated communities are adequately represented * Reduce bureaucracy and introduce early intervention for pupils with special needs * Overhaul career advice with a greater focus on apprenticeships, entrepreneurship and trade skills * Invest in coding and computer science to establish Northern Ireland as a leader in digital skills * Reform school inspections to provide a more collaborative and cooperative model

* Restore the Department of Education budget to at least its pre-austerity levels in real terms * Investigate allegations of malpractice and unacceptable delays in children’s statementing processes * Deliver pay award for teaching staff * Increase investment in literacy and numeracy support for children in the most disadvantaged areas * Keep student fees “affordable”

* Comprehensive review of primary and post-primary curriculums to ensure relevance to modern life * Any future funding package for NI to include ring-fenced resources for education * Reinstate the requirement to study a modern language to GCSE level * Oppose academic selection for schools

Ulster Unionist Party

* Promote a single state education system where children of all faiths – and none – are educated together * End religious discrimination in the appointment of teachers * Support the lifting of the cap on numbers in order to allow more students to study and stay in Notrhern Ireland * Review interest rates on student loans * Ensure any additional funding for schools in England is reflected in Northern Ireland by ring-fencing funds

Conservative

* An extra £14bn for schools in England will mean a substantial increase in funding for the Welsh Government * Remove schools from local authority control, with funding to come directly from the Welsh Government * Working towards consistency in the recognition of technical education qualifications across the UK * Introducing modern foreign language learning in primary schools * Consider compressed degrees studied over two academic years and encourage the growth of part-time, distance and flexible course options

* Schools to remain under local authority control and be comprehensive – no grammars, academies or free schools * Instead of league tables, schools to remain colour-coded to indicate whether they need any support * Students from Wales to continue to get grants to cover living costs, with loans to cover tuition fees * Sats were scrapped more than a decade ago in favour of other tests * 30 hours free childcare for three and four-year-olds

Liberal Democrats

* £560m cash boost for Wales due to spending in England * A new curriculum for Welsh schools from 2022 * Cut infant class sizes * New system for pupils with additional learning needs from 2021 * New rules on school uniform, making it more affordable and offering gender-neutral options

Green Party

* Free universal early education and childcare services * End the programme of school closures, especially in rural areas * Fund lifelong learning for alL

Brexit Party

* Oppose the Welsh Government’s proposed smacking ban * Scrap all interest paid on student tuition fees * Welsh universities to be made to compensate students for college strikes

Scottish Conservatives

* Scottish government will receive funding boosts as a result of UK government spending pledges for education in England * Greater focus on core skills, like literacy and numeracy, and refresh the Curriculum for Excellence * Introduce a renewed vocational education system * Tackle teacher shortages

Scottish Labour

* Scrap assessments for Primary 1 pupils, and review them at P4, P7 and S3 levels * Halt the teaching of three and four different levels in classes * More funding for children with additional support needs * More funding for schools to ensure the Pupil Equity Fund – paid to head teachers to help disadvantaged children – is “truly additional” * Reform the student support system, beginning by implementing a minimum student income of about £9,500 a year – based on a £10 an hour income for 25 hours of study time each week

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Provide free, high-quality childcare for children of working parents from nine months * Invest in schools across the UK, with money going to the Scottish government to increase school budgets, recruit teachers and raise attainment * Protect Scottish universities from the impact of Brexit and ensure that they are open to all * Secure a better deal for teachers by commissioning a McCrone 2 independent expert review of teachers’ terms and conditions * Make Pupil Equity Funding permanent, allowing long-term investments to be made for individual children

Brexit Party

* Scrap interest on student loans * Remove the 50% target for young people going into higher education * Ensure all young people have the choice between a high-quality apprenticeship, setting up their own business or pursuing further or higher education

Scottish Greens

* Employ 4,000 more teachers across Scotland * Increased spending and reversal of staff cuts for supporting children with additional needs * Introduce kindergarten stage and start primary school later, in line with other European countries * Support free and inclusive university and college education

People Before Profit

* Bring an end to selective and segregated education * Address poor educational outcomes based on poverty * End tuition fees in higher education

Green Party

* Introduce universal early years education provision * Introduce free school meals for all primary pupils * End university tuition fees

Conservative

* No rises in income tax or National Insurance rates * Raise the threshold at which individuals pay National Insurance to £9,500 in the first Budget and, later, to £12,500 * Raise the national living wage to £10.50 an hour by 2024 for those over the age of 21 * Keep the triple lock, the winter fuel payment, the older person’s bus pass and other pensioner benefits * Continue the roll-out of universal credit system

* Introduce a “real living wage” of £10 an hour in 2020 for all workers over the age of 16 * Scrap universal credit, the “bedroom tax” and the two-child benefits limit, and increase the Carer’s Allowance for unpaid full-time carers * Scrap the rise in the state pension age, leaving it at 66, and compensate women hit by the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising the age * Increase statutory maternity pay from nine to 12 months, double paternity leave from two weeks to four and increase statutory paternity pay * Move to a 32-hour average working week within the next decade, with no loss of pay

Liberal Democrats

* Increase work allowances under universal credit enabling people to work for longer before benefits are cut and introduce a second earner work allowance * Reduce the wait for the first benefits payment from five weeks to five days * Scrap the two-child limit on family benefits, the “bedroom tax” and the overall benefits cap * Scrap the Work Capability Assessment and reinstate the Independent Living Fund * Right to request a fixed-hours contract after 12 months for zero-hours and agency workers

Independent Group for Change

* Rights for workers to be notified of their shifts one month in advance * The right to bereavement leave following a death in the immediate family * Lower cap on pension fund management fees * Tax breaks for companies that offer longer-term secure career contracts to staff

Green Party

* £86.2bn a year for a universal basic income, replacing the tax and benefits system, to be paid for by a carbon tax * Increase the living wage to £12 and extend it to workers aged between 16 and 21 * Merge income tax, National Insurance, capital gains tax, inheritance tax and dividend tax into a single consolidated income tax * Replace council tax and business rates with a land value tax * 40% quota for women on major company boards

Brexit Party

* 12-month review of universal credit and bring in reforms within two years * Review the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s state pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s

* End the Work Capability Assessment and replace it with a system using qualified medical practitioners * Scrap the “bedroom tax” * No benefits paid to foreign nationals resident in the UK until they have paid tax for five years * Minimise the use of zero-hour contracts

Plaid Cymru

* £35 a week payment for every child in a low-income family * Tax credit of up to £25 a week for tenants in the private sector who spend more than 30% of their income on rent and utility bills * Powers over social security devolved to Wales * Abolish the “bedroom tax” * Universal free childcare for 40 hours a week

Scottish National Party

* Demand UK government halts the rollout of Universal Credit until “fundamental flaws” are addressed * Oppose and increase to the state pension age and campaign against decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s * Press for the statutory living wage to rise to at least the level of the real living wage * Increase shared parental leave from 52 to 64 weeks, with the additional 12 weeks to be the minimum taken by the father * Make the minimum wage for 16 to 24-year-olds the same as for over 25s, and ban unpaid trial shifts

Alliance Party

* Stronger regulation of the gig economy, and oppose deregulation of employment rights * Stronger focus on careers advice * Support a fairer UK-wide welfare system and revised package of welfare mitigations for NI * Scrap the “bedroom tax” * Overhaul bereavement benefits

Democratic Unionist Party

* Personal tax allowance should rise in line with inflation each year * Raise the national living wage to £10.50 by the end of the parliamentary term * End the freeze on benefits by increasing them in line with inflation * Restore free television licences for over-75s but in the longer term abolish the licence fee entirely * Retain the pensions triple lock and retain winter fuel payments

* Abolish zero-hours contracts * Introduce a real living wage * Establish a new “welfare mitigation package” that protects the most vulnerable

* Increase childcare provision from 12.5 hours per week to 20 hours per week, potentially increasing to 30 hours once new budget is agreed * Regulation of zero-hours contracts * Introduce a “true living wage” to reflect rising costs of living * Scrap universal credit, the bedroom tax and the two-child limit * End the freeze on benefits

Ulster Unionist Party

* Extend mitigation measures on key issues such as the bedroom tax, which are due to expire in March * Restore TV licenses for over-75s and retain the triple-lock protection for pensions * Create and implement a new childcare strategy

Conservative

* No rises in income tax or National Insurance rates * Raise the threshold at which individuals pay National Insurance to £9,500 in the first Budget and, later, to £12,500 * Raise the national living wage to £10.50 an hour by 2024 for those over the age of 21 * Keep the triple lock, the winter fuel payment and other pensioner benefits * Continue the roll-out of universal credit system

* Increase the number of employers paying a living wage in Wales and introduce a “real living wage” of £10 an hour in 2020 for all workers over the age of 16 * Scrap universal credit, the “bedroom tax” and the two-child benefits limit, and increase the Carer’s Allowance for unpaid full-time carers * Scrap the rise in the state pension age, leaving it at 66, and compensate women hit by the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising the age * Increase statutory maternity pay from nine to 12 months, double paternity leave from two weeks to four and increase statutory paternity pay * Move to a 32-hour average working week within the next decade, with no loss of pay

Liberal Democrats

* Increase work allowances under universal credit enabling people to work for longer before benefits are cut and introduce a second earner work allowance * Reduce the wait for the first benefits payment from five weeks to five days * Scrap the two-child limit on family benefits, the “bedroom tax” and the overall benefits cap * Scrap the Work Capability Assessment and reinstate the Independent Living Fund * Right to request a fixed-hours contract after 12 months for zero-hours and agency workers

Green Party

* £86.2bn a year for a universal basic income, replacing the tax and benefits system, to be paid for by a carbon tax * Increase the living wage to £12 and extend it to workers aged between 16 and 21 * Merge income tax, National Insurance, capital gains tax, inheritance tax and dividend tax into a single consolidated income tax * Replace council tax and business rates with a land value tax * 40% quota for women on major company boards

Brexit Party

* 12-month review of universal credit and bring in reforms within two years * Review the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s state pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s

Scottish Conservatives

* Raise the threshold at which individuals pay National Insurance to £9,500 in the first Budget and, later, to £12,500 * Raise the national living wage to £10.50 an hour by 2024 for those over the age of 21 * Keep the triple lock, the winter fuel payment and other pensioner benefits * Continue the roll-out of universal credit system * New “collective” workplace pension schemes and new controls on transferring pensions and a review of state pension inequality for Waspi women

Scottish Labour

* Introduce a real living wage of £10 an hour in 2020 for all workers over the age of 16, giving about 700,000 Scottish workers a pay rise * Scrap universal credit and increase child benefit * Scrap the rise in the state pension age, leaving it at 66 and compensate women hit by the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising the age * Move to a 32-hour average working week within the next decade, with no loss of pay * Increase statutory maternity pay from nine to 12 months, double paternity leave from two weeks to four and increase statutory paternity pay

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Reverse cuts to universal credit * Reduce the wait for the first benefits payment * Introduce universal access to basic services * Increase provision of free meals for children, with a particular focus on breakfast * Increase access to free sanitary products

Brexit Party

* 12-month review of universal credit and bring in reforms within two years * Review the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s state pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s

Scottish Greens

* Abolish zero-hours contracts, close the gender pay gap, and ensure that everyone is paid a “real living wage” * Bring in a universal basic income * Remove differential rates of minimum wage for under-25s and introduce a living wage for everyone * Scrap universal credit * Support for the Waspi women (Women Against State Pension Inequality)

People Before Profit

* Scrap welfare reforms include PIP, Universal Credit and the bedroom tax * Develop a state-owned National Childcare Agency * Repeal all anti-trade union laws * Ban zero hours contracts and implement a real living wage

Green Party

* 40% of board members in public companies and public sector boards to be women * Worker representation to be established on the boards of larger companies * Ban “zero-hours” contracts * Increase child benefit

Conservative

* Postpone scheduled corporation tax cut – from 19% to 17% – to save £6bn and no increase to VAT * £5bn to support getting broadband to the hardest-to-reach 20% of the country * £3.6bn Towns Fund for 100 towns to improve their local economy * Review business rates in England – including extending discounts for small shops to 50% – and cut National Insurance contributions for employers by £1,000 * Spending on research and development and scientific research to reach 2.4% of total GDP

* £400bn national transformation fund, including £250bn for energy, transport and the environment, and £150bn for schools, hospitals and housing * A further £250bn in loans for a new national investment bank and a network of regional development banks – with oversight from devolved governments * Rail, mail, water and the energy grid taken back into public ownership and free full fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030 * Create one million more jobs in the UK and a give a 5% increase to public sector workers in first year * Top 5% of earners to pay more income tax – including a new 50% rate on income above £125,000. Also increase corporation tax to 26%

Liberal Democrats

* £130bn investment in infrastructure, including renewable energy, transport and housing * Scrap business rates and replace them with a commercial, landowner levy * Restore corporation tax to 20% and abolish the capital gains tax allowance * £5bn investment in a new Green Investment Bank to attract private investment for public projects * £2bn to ensure access to high-speed broadband across the UK

Independent Group for Change

* Flat rate of 30% for pensions tax relief * International tax avoidance treaty, enforced through a new body at the United Nations * Stronger government oversight of regulators, and an emphasis on the “public benefit interest” of corporate governance * Establish a long-term “fiscal trigger” mechanism that would advise governments on the level of stimulus required over the medium and long term

Green Party

* Borrow £94.4bn a year to pay for capital expenditure – such as building low-carbon homes, upgrading transport infrastructure and creating low-carbon jobs * An extra £124.4bn a year made from a number of tax changes – including raising corporation tax to 24% * Invest in and support new technologies to create new green jobs * Reduce National Insurance contributions for small businesses and set up a network of regional mutual banks to provide funding for start-up companies * Introduce fines for big businesses that fail to pay small businesses on time

Brexit Party

* £200bn spending programme on infrastructure – with money coming from scrapping HS2, not paying the EU divorce bill and halving aid spending * Reduce VAT to zero on domestic fuel to reduce energy bills * Abolish inheritance tax * £10,000 allowance for every UK company before paying corporation tax * Abolish business rates for shops outside the M25, funded by a “small online sales tax”

* Raise personal tax allowance to £15,000 by 2024 * Abolish inheritance tax * Remove VAT from domestic fuel, sanitary products and repairs to commercial, residential, historic and listed buildings * Create free ports – tax-free zones – in the north of England to boost manufacturing and create 150,000 jobs

Plaid Cymru

* Call on the Treasury to raise Wales’ borrowing limit from £1bn to £5bn, to pay for green schemes * £5bn EU transformation fund for Wales to tackle social inequality * Devolve powers on corporation tax, air passenger duty and VAT for Wales * Publicly-owned full fibre broadband by 2025 and 5G mobile signal across Wales * Double funding for Visit Wales and cut tourism VAT

Scottish National Party

* Protect Scotland’s “fair and progressive” tax system * Invest £2bn in Scotland’s economy by establishing a Scottish national investment bank * Bring a “real” end to austerity * Secure Scotland’s membership of the European single market and the customs union, protecting access for Scottish business

Alliance Party

* Stronger focus on productivity and competitiveness issues * Investment in skills training through apprenticeships, further education and hybrid apprenticeship degrees * Strengthening NI’s research base, and combating threats from Brexit * Simplify the payment and administration of income tax and national insurance * Increase the tax-free allowance for income tax so that lower-earners keep more of what they earn

Democratic Unionist Party

* A new industrial strategy to enhance local companies’ strength in global supply chains * Overhaul the non-domestic rates system to make it fairer * Modernise licensing laws * Greater support to help small businesses grow their exports * A new programme to create high-quality business leaders

* Create more “well-paid jobs”, promote regional balance, reduce carbon emissions, and raise productivity * Foster an open, rights-based society that a range of people want to live, work, and invest in * Strengthen the all-Ireland economy and align the north with the higher growth rate in the south * Prioritise rural areas for broadband investment

* Provide regionally balanced investment in infrastructure, job creation and young workers * Support traditional primary, manufacturing and services sectors while prioritising new sectors where there is potential for growth and exports * Abolish Air Passenger Duty for flights from Northern Ireland * Devolve corporation tax powers to the Northern Ireland Assembly

Ulster Unionist Party

* Cut VAT to 5% for the repair, maintenance and improvement of existing homes * Cut VAT to 9% for the hospitality sector * Abolish Air Passenger Duty on flights from Northern Ireland

Conservative

* UK-wide “shared prosperity fund” to replace EU structural funds post-Brexit * Full fibre and gigabit-capable broadband to every home and business in Wales by 2025 * Marches Growth Deal to improve infrastructure supporting the economy on the Wales-England border * Support for Welsh car manufacturing as the industry changes to building electric vehicles * Reform business rates in Wales

* A focus on the “foundation” economy – essential goods and services that communities depend on, namely tourism, food, retail and care * A development bank has been launched * A “green industrial revolution” to help industries and communities throughout Wales * Public sector procurement to use Wales-based firms where possible * Create 100,000 all-age apprenticeships between 2016-21

Liberal Democrats

* Reform the business rates system, prioritising the digital economy * New £50bn UK infrastructure plan, with Welsh Government involved in agreeing how it is spent * Support the creation of a Welsh Development Bank

Green Party

* A “green new deal”, transforming the way the economy works * Create high-quality jobs and end workplace exploitation * Tackle wage inequality * Introduce a universal basic income * Phase in a four-day week

Brexit Party

* £200bn spending programme on infrastructure – with money coming from scrapping HS2, not paying the EU divorce bill and halving aid spending * Reduce VAT to zero on domestic fuel to reduce energy bills * Abolish inheritance tax * £10,000 allowance for every UK company before paying corporation tax * Abolish business rates for shops outside the M25, funded by a “small online sales tax”

Scottish Conservatives

* Stop increasing income tax differences between Scotland and the rest of the UK * Cut corporation tax from 28% to 19% * Fund for full fibre broadband to every home by 2025 * Review the alcohol duty on gin and Scotch whisky * “Transformational” sector deal for the North Sea oil and gas industry to help as the UK moves to a net zero economy

Scottish Labour

* £100bn of additional resources in Scotland over the next 10 years 8 £20bn in loans for a new Scottish National Investment Bank with lending power to deliver funds to local projects and small businesses * Rail, mail and the energy grid taken back into public ownership and free full fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030. Water is already in public ownership in Scotland. * Ask large corporations to pay more by increasing corporation tax to 26% * Public sector chief executives to earn no more than 20 times someone on the living wage – meaning a maximum salary of about £350,000

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Stop Brexit and the “damage” it would do to the economy * Programme of capital investment to stimulate growth across all areas of the UK * High speed broadband for every home and business, with a particular focus on rural areas * Restore corporation tax to 20% – reversing the cut by the Conservatives to 17%

Brexit Party

* £200bn spending programme on infrastructure – with money coming from scrapping HS2, not paying the EU divorce bill and halving aid spending * Reduce VAT to zero on domestic fuel to reduce energy bills * Abolish inheritance tax * £10,000 allowance for every UK company before paying corporation tax * Abolish business rates for shops outside the M25, funded by a “small online sales tax”

Scottish Greens

* A “Green New Deal” to create 200,000 jobs by 2035 in low-carbon industries – including in renewable energy, retrofitting homes, forestry expansion and decommissioning North Sea oil * Phase in a four-day working week * Reduce wealth inequality with a tax on the wealthiest 1%, a land value tax, and limit pay inequality * Target investment towards communities that depend on fossil fuel extraction

People Before Profit

* Where possible “reckless employers” should be taken over by the state to preserve jobs * Tax the rich more in order to redistribute wealth * Introduce a progressive local income tax in place of the current rates system * Oppose privatisation of any public services, including private finance initiative (PFI) projects * Oppose the reduction of corporation tax in NI

Green Party

* Wealth tax of 2% per year introduced for the wealthiest 1% of people * Scrap planned reduction in corporation tax and increase it to 30% for bigger companies * Introduce a “radical” reform of inheritance tax * Increase the Northern Ireland block grant from Westminster

Conservative

* Build a million homes in the next five years, aiming for 300,000 new houses a year by the mid-2020s * A new mortgage with long-term fixed rates only requiring a 5% deposit to help renters buy their first homes * £6.3bn for environmental upgrades to homes, such as grants for improving boilers and insulation * Abolish “no fault” evictions and introduce a single “lifetime” deposit which moves with the tenant * Foreigners buying properties in England to pay 3% more in stamp duty than UK residents

* £75bn for 100,000 new council homes a year by 2024 and 50,000 affordable homes a year through Housing Associations * Upgrade almost all of the UK’s 27 million homes to the highest energy-efficiency standards by 2030 * Abolish right to buy and give councils money and power to buy back former council homes * End rough sleeping within five years * Cap rent increases and stop “no fault” evictions

Liberal Democrats

* Build 300,000 new homes a year by 2024, including 100,000 homes for social rent * Help young people get into rental market with government-backed tenancy deposit loans for all first-time renters under 30 * £15bn over the next Parliament to retrofit insulation in 26 million homes * End rough sleeping within five years * Allow local authorities to increase council tax by up to 500% where homes are being bought as second homes

Independent Group for Change

* Partnerships between the public and private sectors to deliver large-scale affordable housing in areas of high demand * Scale back business and agricultural property relief to generate revenues for social housing

Green Party

* 100,000 new zero-carbon homes for social rent each year * Scrap the Help to Buy and Right to buy programmes * Reform land taxes so that the burden is switched to large landowners * Nationwide insulation programme, covering every UK home that needs it by 2030, with 10 million homes to reach the top energy rating within 10 years

Brexit Party

* Simplify the planning process for building on brownfield sites * Make it easier for councils to borrow from central government to build council houses

* Five-year residency qualification for any non-UK buyers of residential property * Encourage the building of modular housing, made by British companies * Abolish stamp duty for UK citizens on primary residences * Social housing for UK citizens only

Plaid Cymru

* 20,000 green social houses and a £5bn home energy efficiency programme * Strengthen the rights of consumers who buy new-build houses * Major investment in affordable homes * Introduce rent relief for people who pay more than 30% of their income on rent

Scottish National Party

* £25m over three years to build new, affordable homes in rural Scotland * Build 50,000 affordable homes by 2021 * Help first-time buyers get on the property ladder by lending them a portion of their deposit * Eradicate rough sleeping in Scotland, backed by a £50m fund

Alliance Party

* Legislate to ensure the housing executive encourages and facilitates mixed housing * Support for increased housebuilding in NI to address housing pressures

Democratic Unionist Party

* Increased investment to new social and affordable housing with an annual social housing target of at least 2,000 new homes a year * Turn the Northern Ireland Housing Executive into a strategic housing body, including new powers to tackle the issue of empty homes * Create community land trusts for affordable homes * Create a town centre generation challenge fund * Reintroduce a “living over the shops” scheme to increase the number of people living in town centres

* Increase social housing stock, particularly in areas of highest need * Improve standards and security of tenure in the private rented sector * More affordable housing

* Prioritise spending on social housing and new build programmes to provide 3,000 new social homes each year * Expand affordable housing schemes to give more first-time buyers the chance to own their own home * Work to tackle segregation with new-build schemes and in existing neighbourhoods * New housing to be prioritised in areas of greatest need

Ulster Unionist Party

* Make it mandatory for properties to meet a minimum energy efficiency rating * A structural reform of social housing provision, including the separation of landlord functions from the Northern Ireland Housing Executive * Place a duty to prevent homelessness on statutory services such as the NHS and prisons

Conservative

* Reinstate right-to-buy, which has been abolished in Wales * 12,000 homes built per annum * A minister in the Welsh Government cabinet responsible for housing and planning * Land transaction tax rebates for homes that improve their energy efficiency standard

* Abolished the “right to buy” to protect the stock of social housing * Target of 20,000 extra affordable homes from 2016-21 through new builds and repairing empty properties * Keep the Land Registry in the public sector to make land ownership in Wales more transparent * End homelessness, especially for young people

Liberal Democrats

* New social homes to be accessible and low-carbon * Examine the case for reforming planning law to promote increased affordable house building * Additional funding for local authorities to ensure adequate provision of emergency accommodation * Each local authority to have at least one “housing first” project – aimed at ending homelessness

Green Party

* Provide sustainable, affordable housing for all, including 12,000 new homes per year in Wales * Introduce right to rent legislation * Invest in making Wales’ housing stock energy efficient

Brexit Party

* Simplify the planning process for building on brownfield sites * Make it easier for councils to borrow from central government to build council houses

Scottish Conservatives

* Build eight new towns across Scotland * Dedicated secretary for housing and infrastructure in the Scottish government and a new housing and infrastructure agency * Funding passed to Scottish government as a result of plans for other parts of UK to fund environmental upgrades to homes, such as grants for improving boilers and insulation * A new mortgage with long-term fixed rates only requiring a 5% deposit to help renters buy their first homes

Scottish Labour

* Cap private rent rises and regulate short-term lets * Significantly expand building of council and social houses * Scrap “help to buy” and replace it with a more targeted scheme to help first-time buyers on lower incomes * Equal right of appeal in planning applications * End rough sleeping within five years

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Help build 300,000 homes a year by 2024 across the UK, including social housing especially for social rent * End rough sleeping * Build new houses to zero-carbon standards and cut fuel bills by reducing energy consumption * Insulate all homes by 2030, cutting emissions and fuel bills and ending fuel poverty

Brexit Party

* Simplify the planning process for building on brownfield sites * Make it easier for councils to borrow from central government to build council houses

Scottish Greens

* More affordable homes, with rent controls and better rights for tenants * More powers for councils to tackle empty homes * Nationwide insulation retrofit programme and standards to make all new homes low carbon

People Before Profit

* Carry out a building programme for social housing

Green Party

* Incentivise the building of 2,000 energy efficient social homes per year * Introduce rent control legislation * Bring empty homes back into use

Conservative

* Net-zero emissions by 2050 * £9.2bn to improve the energy efficiency of homes, schools and hospitals * Ban the export of plastic waste to developing countries and make producers responsible for the full cost of dealing with the waste they produce * Continue ban on fracking, until there is evidence it can be done safely * Plant 30 million trees a year until 2024

* Aim for net-zero energy emissions by the 2030s, 90% of electricity and 50% of heat from renewable and low-carbon sources by 2030 * Lift the ban on new onshore wind farms, and invest in new solar, tidal and wind energy * Windfall tax on oil firms * Phase out petrol and diesel car sales by 2030 * Plant two billion new trees in England by 2040 (100 million a year)

Liberal Democrats

* Climate action plan to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2045 * Generate 80% of electricity from renewables by 2030 – and ban fracking * No more airport expansion and those who fly most to pay more tax * Ban on non-recyclable single-use plastics * Plant 60 million trees a year until 2045

Independent Group for Change

* Reach carbon net zero by 2045 * Transition away from sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2030 * Phase out non-essential single-use plastics by 2025 * Higher standards for new-build housing, with all new stock built to carbon neutral standards by 2025 * Develop a diverse energy base using a range of renewables, including hydrogen and tidal

Green Party

* £100bn a year for a decade to tackle climate change and make Britain carbon neutral by 2030 * Wind to provide about 70% of the UK’s electricity by 2030, with other renewable energies to provide most of the rest * Phase out petrol and diesel car sales by 2030 * Ban the construction of nuclear power stations and fracking for gas and oil * Plant 700 million new trees and aim for 50% of all farms to be engaged in agroforestry by 2030

Brexit Party

* Recycle all waste within the UK and make it illegal to export it overseas * Plant tens of millions of trees

* Scrap the Climate Change Act and withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement and carbon trading schemes * End subsidies for wind turbines and large areas of solar panels * Rejuvenate the UK’s coal industry and end the combustion of wood pellets from overseas forests in former coal power stations * Protect the green belt and countryside from large-scale development

Plaid Cymru

* A £20bn Welsh “green jobs revolution” – investing in renewables, infrastructure, and digital services, and creating tens of thousands of jobs * Build tidal lagoons in Swansea Bay, Cardiff and Colwyn Bay, an offshore wind farm off Anglesey and a barrage on the River Usk * Wales to be 100% self-sufficient in renewable electricity by 2035 * Wales to be a carbon neutral and single-use plastic free nation by 2030

Scottish National Party

* Demand the UK accelerates its action to meet Scotland’s climate change targets of a 75% reduction in emissions by 2035, net zero carbon emissions no later than 2040 and net zero of all emissions by 2045, * Call for a reduction in VAT on energy efficiency improvements in homes * Aim to plant 60m trees annually in the UK by 2025, with 30m of these in Scotland * All new homes to use renewable or low carbon heat from 2024 * Campaign for the UK to remain aligned with EU environmental regulations even if Brexit takes place

Alliance Party

* Put tackling climate change at the heart of all policy * Accelerate switch to less polluting forms of energy * Ensure protection of nature and ecosystems * Reduce the UK’s net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2030 * Support the continued existence of the all-island energy market

Democratic Unionist Party

* Increase financial support for farmers * Ensure agriculture is protected in post-Brexit trade deals * A new fisheries bill for the territorial waters of the UK * Meet the net-zero carbon neutral target for Northern Ireland by 2050 * Ban all new petrol and diesel car sales by 2035

* Establish an independent environmental protection agency * Introduce a Climate Change Act with ambitious targets for reducing carbon emissions * Moratorium on the exploration and extraction of fossil fuels, and a ban on fracking * Produce a new energy strategy that prioritises renewable energy * Deliver a green new deal that creates jobs in green industries

* Promote the creation of low-carbon alternatives to high-carbon industries, including help for carbon-intensive industries to become more carbon neutral * Support electric vehicle subsidies and aim to end the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2030 * Emergency legislation to incentivise moving to a carbon neutral economy by 2030 * Ban fracking * A moratorium on strip mining and precious mineral/metal mining until it can be proven there is no risk to the environment or public health

Ulster Unionist Party

* A new Environmental Protection Act which would have legal targets for net zero emissions in Northern Ireland by 2035 * Create a new Environmental Protection Agency * Introduce a statutory duty to tackle invasive species and halt the rate at which local species and habitats are declining * Plant one million new trees by 2025

Conservative

* Fund more research into tidal energy around the Welsh coast * Promote interest in building commercially viable tidal lagoons in North, South and West Wales * Halt approvals of large incinerators until a national plan is developed * Set up a Welsh flood defence fund to invest in improvements * Improve energy efficiency of Welsh homes, schools and hospital and support clean transport

* The Labour Welsh government declared a climate emergency in May, and pledged to aim for zero emissions by 2050 * Labour Welsh Government ministers have engaged in dialogue with Extinction Rebellion * Prioritise public transport over new roads eg developing metro systems in south and north Wales, and scrapping plans for a new motorway in south Wales

Liberal Democrats

* Give the green light to the Swansea Tidal Lagoon * Change taxation on fossil fuels * Give additional funding to bring more private investment into renewable energy * Establish a Wales-wide deposit return scheme if a UK-wide scheme is not feasible * Support a UK-wide single-use plastics tax

Green Party

* Make Wales a leader in tackling climate change * Raise the ambition of emissions reduction targets * Support for community-owned renewable energy schemes * Support for necessary green infrastructure, such as the proposed Swansea Tidal Lagoon

Brexit Party

* Recycle all waste within the UK and make it illegal to export it overseas * Plant tens of millions of trees * Welsh Government must tackle air pollution and deliver convenient car charging points

Scottish Conservatives

* Net-zero emissions by 2050 and ask global partners to match that ambition at the UN Climate Change Summit in Glasgow in 2020 * Funding boosts to the Scottish government as a result of funding in England to improve the energy efficiency of homes, schools and hospitals * Ban the export of plastic waste to developing countries and make producers responsible for the full cost of dealing with the waste they produce * Encourage the Scottish government to adopt proposals that pay farmers for environmental stewardship * Introduce a legal commitment to fish sustainably

Scottish Labour

* Windfall tax on oil firms * Cut emissions and aim for net-zero emissions by the 2030s * Phase out petrol and diesel car sales by 2030 * Create 50,000 sustainable jobs in low-carbon industries * Build up public transport networks across the country

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* UK to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2045 at the latest * At least 80% of UK electricity generated from renewables by 2030 * Plant 60 million trees a year across the UK * End opencast coal mining and ban fracking across the UK

Brexit Party

* Recycle all waste within the UK and make it illegal to export it overseas * Plant tens of millions of trees

Scottish Greens

* Reduce emissions by 80% by 2030 * Create a government-led “Green New Deal” to accelerate the transition to a zero carbon economy * Bring grid into public ownership and develop a government-funded support scheme for renewables and reverse cuts to subsidies * Make homes more energy efficient * A commitment to keep fossil fuels in the ground, including phasing out North Sea oil and gas extraction, and permanently ban fracking across the UK

People Before Profit

* All reserves of energy – both renewable and fossil fuels – be brought into public ownership * Introduce a zero waste approach to waste management * Offer more support to small farmers

Green Party

* Change planning policy to be based on sustainability * Introduce extra support for small farmers * Encourage organic agriculture * Establish an independent environmental protection agency for NI * Ban the hunting of animals with dogs in NI

Conservative

* Establish immigration controls and end freedom of movement after Brexit * Introduce an Australian-style points-based system, which treats all migrants equally regardless of where they come from * EU citizens to wait five years before accessing benefits and to pay an NHS surcharge – like other migrants * Bring in an “NHS visa” that would make it easier for doctors and nurses from around the world to work in the UK * Introduce a “start-up visa” to attract entrepreneurs

* Protect the rights of the three million EU citizens living in the UK * No fixed cap on net migration – the difference between those arriving in the UK and those leaving * An immigration system based on the needs of the economy and communities and a flexible work visa system * Compensation for victims of the Windrush immigration scandal * End indefinite detention, review alternatives to detention centres, and close Yarl’s Wood and Brook House centres

Liberal Democrats

* Create a new two-year visa for students to work after graduation * Remove the minimum income requirement for spouse and partner visas * Give asylum seekers the right to work three months after they have applied * End indefinite immigration detention by introducing a 28-day limit * Resettle 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children in the UK over the next 10 years and expand family reunion rights

Independent Group for Change

* Support free movement of people across Europe as with current membership of the EU * Encourage foreign students to come to the UK * E-identity system linked to National Insurance numbers to measure and enforce fair immigration rules * Establish a migration impact fund to give support to areas experiencing sharp population changes

Green Party

* Provide all migrants with access to legal advice, childcare and a subsistence allowance, and reintroduce legal aid * Scrap NHS charges for migrants * Scrap minimum income rules for visas * End the indefinite detention of all refugees and asylum seekers * Suspend deportation flights and allow refugees to work while they wait for a decision

Brexit Party

* Cap on migration of 50,000 a year * Introduce a points-based immigration system

* Reduce immigration to low, sustainable levels * Introduce time-limited work permits for skilled workers * UK Border Force will become the Migration Control Department, overseeing all immigration and border control * Withdraw the UK from the Barcelona Declaration (1995), Marrakesh Declaration (2018) and UN Global Migration Compact (2018), which all cover co-operation on migration

Plaid Cymru

* Introduce Welsh-specific visas * Take international students out of net migration targets

Scottish National Party

* Campaign for EU nationals to be given automatic right to remain and full protection of their rights * Push for devolution of migration powers to the Scottish Parliament or a separate Scottish visa system * Push for Scottish government to have a role in deciding the “shortage occupation list” in order to attract the workers Scotland needs

Alliance Party

* Guarantee the rights of EU citizens resident in UK * Regional flexibility in immigration strategy * A fairer and more humane immigration and asylum system * Limited immigration powers to be handed to the Northern Ireland Assembly in the event of Brexit * Remove the cap on non-EU migrants

Democratic Unionist Party

* Develop a points-based immigration system * Ensure any new system addresses labour needs through skills-gap lists for all parts of the UK

* No policies announced in this area.

* Commit to international co-operation, the values of the EU and free movement of citizens * Challenge Eurosceptic parties that exploit “people’s worst fears” * Migrants helped to develop knowledge of society and language, with access to education and services * Make NI an attractive place for young people to settle and curb economic “brain drain”

Ulster Unionist Party

* Recognise the importance – and in some sectors the necessity – of attracting migrant workers * Reject the minimum salary qualification of £30,000 for migrants, which the government has proposed to bring in after Brexit

Conservative

* Establish immigration controls and end freedom of movement after Brexit * Introduce an Australian-style points-based system, which treats all migrants equally regardless of where they come from * EU citizens to wait five years before accessing benefits and to pay an NHS surcharge – like other migrants * Bring in an “NHS visa” that would make it easier for doctors and nurses from around the world to work in the UK * Introduce a “start-up visa” to attract entrepreneurs

* Protect the rights of the three million EU citizens living in the UK * No fixed cap on net migration – the difference between those arriving in the UK and those leaving * An immigration system based on the needs of the economy and communities and a flexible work visa system * Compensation for victims of the Windrush immigration scandal * End indefinite detention, review alternatives to detention centres, and close Yarl’s Wood and Brook House centres

Liberal Democrats

* Create a new two-year visa for students to work after graduation * Remove the minimum income requirement for spouse and partner visas * Give asylum seekers the right to work three months after they have applied * End indefinite immigration detention by introducing a 28-day limit * Resettle 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children in the UK over the next 10 years and expand family reunion rights

Green Party

* Provide all migrants with access to legal advice, childcare and a subsistence allowance, and reintroduce legal aid * Scrap NHS charges for migrants * Scrap minimum income rules for visas * End the indefinite detention of all refugees and asylum seekers * Suspend deportation flights and allow refugees to work while they wait for a decision

Brexit Party

* Cap on migration of 50,000 a year * Introduce a points-based immigration system

Scottish Conservatives

* End freedom of movement for EU citizens * Give EU citizens until December 2020 to apply for settled status * Introduce an Australian points-based system * Bring in an “NHS visa” that would make it easier for doctors and nurses from around the world to work in the UK

Scottish Labour

* Protect the rights of EU citizens living in the UK * No fixed cap on net migration – the difference between those arriving in the UK and those leaving * An immigration system based on the needs of the economy and communities and a flexible work visa system * Compensation for victims of the Windrush immigration scandal * End indefinite detention, review alternatives to detention centres, and close Yarl’s Wood and Brook House centres

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Keep EU free movement * Give asylum seekers the right to work three months after they have made their application * Resettle 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children in the UK over the next 10 years

Brexit Party

* Cap on migration of 50,000 a year * Introduce a points-based immigration system

Scottish Greens

* Abolish Home Office and replace it with something which respects dignity and human rights * Give refugees and asylum seekers an immediate right to work and an income * Extend students visas to allow work after graduation * Support the rights of EU citizens to live and work in the UK with access to health, education, housing, employment and social security services

People Before Profit

* All immigrants to be made welcome * Migrant workers to retain their full rights to work and travel * Oppose racism in all its forms

Green Party

* Ensure the treatment of refugees after arrival meets good human rights practice

Conservative

* £28.8bn to upgrade key roads over the next five years * £500m a year for four years for a national pothole-filling programme * Restore train lines shut down in the 1960s, scrap the rail franchise system, build “Northern Powerhouse Rail” between Leeds and Manchester and invest in Midlands rail hub * £220m to improve bus services across England, including “superbus networks” * New veterans’ railcard, giving those who have served in the armed forces a third off rail fares

* Bring rail services back into public ownership as franchises expire * Restore 3,000 bus routes and give more local control of bus services * Extend free bus travel to all under-25s where routes are run by councils * Invest in transport infrastructure including building “Crossrail for the North” and completing HS2 * Airport expansion to pass tests on air quality, noise pollution, climate change obligations and economic benefit

Liberal Democrats

* Every new car and small van sold to be electric by 2030 * Extend the rail network – including High Speed 2 and Crossrail 2 – and convert the whole network to low-emission technology by 2035 * Freeze rail fares for commuters and season ticket holders for five years * £4.5bn over five years to restore local bus routes * 10% of the transport budget to be spent on national walking and cycling schemes

Independent Group for Change

* Support new capacity on rail continuing with the HS2 line connecting the East Midlands and Yorkshire * Improve bus services by allowing areas beyond London to have similar powers to regulate

Green Party

* Scrap HS2, the road-building programme and airport expansion and use the money to invest in public transport * £12.2bn to upgrade rail capacity * £2.5 billion a year on new cycleways and footpaths * Establish a government-owned company to invest in a fleet of new electric trains to run on newly electrified lines * Give local authorities control over bus services and support them to restore lost bus routes and open new ones

Brexit Party

* Scrap HS2, but invest in road and rail projects across the regions * Invest £50bn in road and rail schemes in areas in most need * Free wi-fi on all public transport

* Scrap HS2 and use some of the money saved on upgrading existing railway lines and metro rail systems * Oppose the expansion of Heathrow Airport, but encourage investment in regional airports * Scrap road tolls * Repeal EU regulations requiring GPS trackers in all vehicles and oppose pay-as-you-go road pricing

Plaid Cymru

* Electrify all mainline rail lines by 2030, the south Wales Valley Lines and North Wales Coast railway and re-open rail services in the Amman, Tawe, Neath, and Dulais valleys * A south east Wales “super metro” transport system, metro for Swansea Bay and the western valleys and for north east Wales * Introduce a Wales-wide smart card ticketing service for public transport passengers * Re-regulate buses * Roads investment to focus on improving links between north and south Wales as well as along the main east-west transport corridors

Scottish National Party

* Invest £500m in new bus infrastructure * Ensure there can be a “robust” public sector bid for the next ScotRail franchise * Call for the devolution of Network Rail in Scotland to Scottish Parliament * Reduce emissions from Scotland’s railways to zero by 2035 * Introduce initiative to ensure more people choose to make everyday journeys on foot or by bike

Alliance Party

* Emphasis on public and sustainable transport, promotion of cycling and walking * A greater investment in electric vehicles

Democratic Unionist Party

* A high speed rail link between Belfast and Dublin * Expand the number of public buses and move from diesel to alternative energy * Lobby for a bridge connecting Northern Ireland and Scotland, if the current feasibility study is positive * Cancel the High Speed 2 railway line * Build a third runway at Heathrow Airport

* Increase investment in public and rural transport * Deliver key infrastructure projects such as the A5 and A6 * Encourage low emission vehicles * Invest in cycle lanes and walk ways * Invest in rural roads

* Fast-track funding to upgrade Northern Ireland’s road network * Enhance the Belfast to Dublin train service to reduce journey times * Expand the rail network, including stations at Belfast International, Belfast City and City of Derry airports * Improve cycling, with more greenways, cycle lanes and cycle infrastructure

Ulster Unionist Party

* Promote sustainable travel, implementing traffic-free cycling infrastructure * Improve Belfast’s York Street Interchange as a number one infrastructure priority * Demand a multi-year road maintenance budget * Improve key rail routes – such as the Antrim line – and create new connections, including ones to Belfast International Airport

Conservative

* Upgrade the A55 as the main transport artery for North Wales * A new arm’s-length body to deliver an integrated transport system * A new smart card travel scheme, for use on different modes of public transport throughout Wales * A consultation on increasing the speed limit to 80mph on the M4 and A55 * Fund the building of the West Wales Parkway station outside Swansea

* Promote public transport by developing the South Wales and North Wales metros, in preference to major road programmes * Extra funding from a UK Labour government to help local bus services and extend young people’s discounted travel scheme * Commit to rail electrification and improve planning of walking and cycling routes * Accelerate plans for all Welsh taxis and buses to have a zero carbon footprint within 10 years

Liberal Democrats

* Press for the full electrification of Welsh railway lines including the North Wales Coast Line * Introduce an all-Wales Oyster card-style service * Scrap the Anglesey-Cardiff air link * Devolve air passenger duty

Green Party

* Oppose all airport expansion and environmentally destructive road building schemes * Invest in sustainable transport solutions * Create sustainable, efficient and affordable public transport across Wales

Brexit Party

* Build the M4 relief road

Scottish Conservatives

* Encourage active travel by investing in local walking and cycling paths, as well as measures that join up other modes of transport * Continue to support a road maintenance fund, giving local authorities the chance to bid for additional funding to fix poor roads faster * Extend the national concessionary travel scheme to community transport * Funding boosts to the Scottish government as a result of funding in England for repairs and upgrades to the road network

Scottish Labour

* Take ScotRail into the public sector when franchise expires * Restore bus routes and provide more local control over bus services * Extend free bus travel to under-25s where routes are run by councils * Extend high-speed rail networks nationwide by completing the full HS2 route to Scotland

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* End the sale of new diesel and petrol cars by 2030 * Convert the rail network to ultra-low-emission technology by 2035 * Review all railways closed in Scotland since 1945 with a view to reopening them * Oppose Scottish government support for third runway at Heathrow

Brexit Party

* Scrap HS2, but invest in road and rail projects across the regions * Invest £50bn in road and rail schemes in areas in most need * Free wi-fi on all public transport

Scottish Greens

* Extend free bus travel to under-21s, with long-term aim to provide free public transport for all * Prioritise investment in a publicly-owned rail service – including ScotRail – and make bus travel, cycling and walking more accessible * Oppose an extra runway at Heathrow and tax breaks to the aviation industry * Reform Vehicle Excise Duty and end freeze on fuel duty

People Before Profit

* Free public transport for everyone

Green Party

* Free bus travel for young people and students * Subsidise ferry journeys between Northern Ireland and Great Britain * Promote cycling infrastructure

Conservative

* Oppose an independence referendum in Scotland * Introduce a UK shared prosperity fund, to be used to tackle inequality and deprivation in each nation * Devolve power across the UK, building on the success of metropolitan mayors, and publish an English devolution white paper in 2020 * Get rid of the Fixed Term Parliament Act and review parliamentary boundaries * Introduce a photo ID requirement for voting

* Extend voting rights to 16 and 17-year-olds, and all UK residents in general elections * Abolish the House of Lords and replace it with an entirely elected second chamber * Oppose a second Scottish independence referendum in the early years of a Labour government * £5bn additional core funding for councils and bring council services, such as bin collections, back in-house within the next Parliament * £10.2bn for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

Liberal Democrats

* Scrap first-past-the-post and introduce proportional representation for general elections and local elections * Allow voting from the age of 16 and for all EU citizens who have been living in the UK for five years or more * Reform the House of Lords, cap donations to political parties and ban MPs from paid lobbying work * A written constitution for a federal United Kingdom – but no second independence referendum in Scotland * More devolution within England, a £50bn regional rebalancing programme, and £6.8bn funding and more powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

Independent Group for Change

* Westminster’s second chamber to be reformed with representation from the devolved nations, regions and local government * Real powers for elected mayors with accountability to local residents and greater devolution of power to a local level across all layers of government * Compulsory voting in the UK with provision for abstention * Hold summit of the UK’s smaller political parties to discuss breaking “the cartel” of bigger established parties

Green Party

* Scrap first-past-the-post electoral system and introduce proportional representation * Extend voting rights to 16 and 17-year-olds * Introduce an elected House of Lords * £10bn a year funding for councils and use panels and assemblies to boost public involvement in local government policy * Introduce job-sharing at all levels of government to make politics more accessible

Brexit Party

* Replace the first-past-the-post electoral system with proportional representation * Automatic referendums to be held if more than five million people sign a petition * Replace the House of Lords with a smaller, elected second chamber * Make it easier for constituents to force by-elections to oust MPs who switch parties during their terms of office * Reform of the postal voting system

* Introduce proportional representation in all elections * Hold a referendum on the future of the House of Lords with options to abolish it or make it a fully democratic second chamber * Hold referendums on scrapping the Welsh Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and Stormont * End postal voting fraud, by allowing postal voting only in exceptional circumstances

Plaid Cymru

* Support independence for Wales * Votes for 16 and 17-year-olds in all elections

Scottish National Party

* Referendum on Scottish independence in 2020 * Support votes for 16 and 17-year-olds, as well as EU nationals, in UK elections to match the franchise in Scotland * Extend the right to vote in Scottish elections to citizens of all nationalities legally resident * Replace the House of Lords with an elected second chamber * Protect the Scottish Parliament from a “power grab” by Westminster

Alliance Party

* Scrap first-past-the-post and introduce a single transferable vote system for Westminster elections * Votes at 16 * Elected House of Lords * Transform Stormont by ending the process of community designation and reforming the Petition of Concern system * Hold a UK-wide constitutional convention to develop a fully codified constitution

Democratic Unionist Party

* Repeal the Fixed Term Parliaments Act * Cabinet to meet in Belfast once a year * Reform the House of Lords by electing two-thirds of its members * Remove the need for political parties to designate as “unionist”, “nationalist” or “other” at Stormont

* Extend Irish presidential voting rights to Northern Ireland and diaspora * Increase co-operation between local authorities north and south * Secure a date for a referendum on Irish unity in line with the Good Friday Agreement * Ensure the Irish Government prepares a plan for unity * Implement an Irish Language Act

* Support lowering the voting age to 16 * Aspire to Irish unification * Reform the petition of concern veto mechanism at the Northern Ireland Assembly

Ulster Unionist Party

* Lower the voting age to 16 by 2021 * Examine how the Act of Union can be updated to consolidate the relationship between Westminster and the devolved administrations * Introduce rules so ministers and special advisers at Stormont who break the code of conduct are investigated and held to account

Conservative

* Photo ID requirement for voting * Make it easier for UK expatriates to vote, getting rid of the 15-year limit on their voting rights * Updated and equal Parliamentary boundaries so that every vote counts the same * Maintain the ban on prisoners voting in Wales and England * Won’t join the committee on electoral reform, which is considering increasing the number of AMs, the system by which they would be elected, and the voting age for Assembly and Welsh local elections

* Support votes for 16-year-olds and the renaming of the Welsh Assembly as a parliament * Against the idea of changing the number and way members are elected to the Welsh Assembly, and retaining a mix of first-past-the-post and regional lists to give a more proportional outcome * Support a more federal UK to preserve the union

Liberal Democrats

* Introduce a written, federal constitution that would make the National Assembly for Wales a permanent institution * Proportional representation for local and Westminster elections * Lower the voting age to 16 for all elections and referendums * Reform the House of Lords to give it a democratic mandate * Enable UK citizens living abroad to vote for MPs in separate overseas constituencies, and to participate in UK referendums

Green Party

* Greater devolution of powers to local level * Proportional representation for elections at every level of government * Votes at 16 for all elections * Support the recommendations of the McAllister report on reforming the National Assembly for Wales

Brexit Party

* Maintain the voting age of 18 * Oppose giving prisoners the vote * Against expanding the Welsh Assembly to have more members * Calling for a register of lobbyists to be set up by the Welsh Government * Cut the number of Welsh councils from 22 to 12 by asking most to merge, and reduce councillors by one-third to a half

Scottish Conservatives

* Oppose a second referendum on independence * Decentralise more power to local level * Introduce a UK shared prosperity fund, to be used to tackle inequality and deprivation in each nation * Get rid of the fixed term parliament act and review parliamentary boundaries * Maintain the voting age at 18 for UK-wide elections and continue to support the First Past the Post voting system

Scottish Labour

* Oppose a second referendum on Scottish independence during early years of Labour government * Extend voting rights to 16 and 17-year-olds, and all UK residents in general elections * Abolish the House of Lords and replace it with an entirely elected second chamber

Scottish Liberal Democrats

* Oppose a second referendum on independence * Introduce proportional representation for Westminster elections * Establish an elected House of Lords * Extend the right to vote to 16 and 17-year-olds and all EU citizens who have been living in the UK for five years or more * More powers to the Scottish Parliament – as part of plans for a federal UK – and shift powers from Holyrood to local authorities

Brexit Party

* Suggest shutting Holyrood

Scottish Greens

* Support a second referendum on Scottish independence * Encourage further devolution of powers from Westminster to Holyrood * Introduce proportional representation for all elections * Extend votes to 16-year-olds and all those normally resident in the country * Replacing the House of Lords with an elected second chamber

People Before Profit

* Extend voting rights to 16-year-olds * Support a border poll

Green Party

* Scrap first-past-the-post and introduce proportional representation to Westminster and establish a fully-elected House of Lords * Lower the voting age to 16 * Register the party at Stormont as “other” – not nationalist or unionist * Recognise that climate change is more important than constitutional change

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What are the parties promising you?

Find out what the UK political parties are promising at this election by selecting a nation or party below.

England

Conservative

Leader

Boris Johnson

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January
  • £20.5bn additional funding for the NHS in England by 2023-24, 50 million more GP appointments and 50,000 more nurses
  • 20,000 more police officers over the next three years in England and Wales
  • No rises in income tax, National Insurance contributions or VAT
  • Introduce an Australian-style points-based immigration system, which treats everyone equally regardless of where they come from
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January
  • Negotiate free trade agreement with EU to come into force in 2021
  • Will not extend the transition period after the UK’s departure beyond December 2020
  • End to freedom of movement between the EU and the UK and a new points-based immigration system
  • Negotiate free trade agreements with other trading partners around the world
NHS and care

Analysis: NHS promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • £20.5bn additional funding for the NHS in England by 2023-24, with additional money to cover rising pension costs
  • Build 40 new hospitals over the next 10 years, and give 20 hospitals an extra £1.8bn cash injection
  • £5bn for social care over five years and develop new long-term plan with cross-party support
  • 6,000 more GPs in England by 2024-25 and deliver 50,000 more nurses, bringing back nurse bursaries
  • End hospital parking charges in England for selected patients and NHS staff – costing £78m a year
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • 20,000 more police officers for England and Wales over the next three years
  • 10,000 extra prison places and £2.5bn for improving prisons
  • Criminals imprisoned for four years or more to serve at least two-thirds of their sentence before release
  • Tougher sentences for violent and sexual offenders as well as animal cruelty
  • Greater freedom for police to stop and search those known to have carried knives, and anyone caught unlawfully with a knife to be immediately arrested, charged within 24 hours and in court within a week
Education

Manifesto pledges

  • £7.1bn a year more for schools in England by 2022-23
  • £250m a year, for at least three years, plus a £250m capital spending boost for “wraparound” childcare – meaning after school or during holidays
  • £2bn for further education colleges and establish 20 Institutes of Technology
  • A new National Skills Fund of £600m a year for five years
  • Increase teacher starting salaries to £30,000 and overall teachers’ salaries
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • No rises in income tax or National Insurance rates
  • Raise the threshold at which individuals pay National Insurance to £9,500 in the first Budget and, later, to £12,500
  • Raise the national living wage to £10.50 an hour by 2024 for those over the age of 21
  • Keep the triple lock, the winter fuel payment, the older person’s bus pass and other pensioner benefits
  • Continue the roll-out of universal credit system
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • Postpone scheduled corporation tax cut – from 19% to 17% – to save £6bn and no increase to VAT
  • £5bn to support getting broadband to the hardest-to-reach 20% of the country
  • £3.6bn Towns Fund for 100 towns to improve their local economy
  • Review business rates in England – including extending discounts for small shops to 50% – and cut National Insurance contributions for employers by £1,000
  • Spending on research and development and scientific research to reach 2.4% of total GDP
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • Build a million homes in the next five years, aiming for 300,000 new houses a year by the mid-2020s
  • A new mortgage with long-term fixed rates only requiring a 5% deposit to help renters buy their first homes
  • £6.3bn for environmental upgrades to homes, such as grants for improving boilers and insulation
  • Abolish “no fault” evictions and introduce a single “lifetime” deposit which moves with the tenant
  • Foreigners buying properties in England to pay 3% more in stamp duty than UK residents
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • Net-zero emissions by 2050
  • £9.2bn to improve the energy efficiency of homes, schools and hospitals
  • Ban the export of plastic waste to developing countries and make producers responsible for the full cost of dealing with the waste they produce
  • Continue ban on fracking, until there is evidence it can be done safely
  • Plant 30 million trees a year until 2024
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Establish immigration controls and end freedom of movement after Brexit
  • Introduce an Australian-style points-based system, which treats all migrants equally regardless of where they come from
  • EU citizens to wait five years before accessing benefits and to pay an NHS surcharge – like other migrants
  • Bring in an “NHS visa” that would make it easier for doctors and nurses from around the world to work in the UK
  • Introduce a “start-up visa” to attract entrepreneurs
Transport

Manifesto pledges

  • £28.8bn to upgrade key roads over the next five years
  • £500m a year for four years for a national pothole-filling programme
  • Restore train lines shut down in the 1960s, scrap the rail franchise system, build “Northern Powerhouse Rail” between Leeds and Manchester and invest in Midlands rail hub
  • £220m to improve bus services across England, including “superbus networks”
  • New veterans’ railcard, giving those who have served in the armed forces a third off rail fares
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Oppose an independence referendum in Scotland
  • Introduce a UK shared prosperity fund, to be used to tackle inequality and deprivation in each nation
  • Devolve power across the UK, building on the success of metropolitan mayors, and publish an English devolution white paper in 2020
  • Get rid of the Fixed Term Parliament Act and review parliamentary boundaries
  • Introduce a photo ID requirement for voting

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Labour

Leader

Jeremy Corbyn

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • £400bn national transformation fund, including £250bn for energy, transport and the environment, and £150bn for schools, hospitals and housing
  • £75bn for 100,000 new council homes a year by 2024 and 50,000 affordable homes a year through Housing Associations
  • Free full-fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030
  • £10-an-hour minimum wage for all workers
  • Hold another referendum on Brexit
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Renegotiate a Brexit deal within three months and hold a public vote within six months, with the negotiated deal alongside Remain on the ballot paper
  • Negotiate UK-wide customs union membership, close single market alignment and guarantees on workers’ rights and environmental protections
  • Any agreement must meet the UK’s international obligations, particularly the Good Friday Agreement
  • Remove the threat of no-deal
NHS and care

Analysis: NHS promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • £26bn additional funding for the NHS in England by 2023-24, with a focus on cutting waiting times and boosting mental health services
  • End private provision within the NHS, stop the sale of NHS land and assets and set up a state-run pharmaceutical company
  • £10.8bn for free personal social care for over-65s
  • Free prescriptions, dental check-ups, and hospital car parking
  • Train a new generation of GPs to provide 27 million more GP appointments each year, by increasing training places from 3,500 to 5,000
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Recruit 22,000 more police officers and prioritise neighbourhood policing
  • Restore prison officer numbers to 2010 levels and bring PFI prisons back into public ownership
  • Scrap shorter prison sentences and introduce a presumption against prison sentences of six months or less for non-violent offences
  • Restore legal aid for housing, social security, family and immigration cases and recruit hundreds of new community lawyers
  • Review the Prevent and Protect programmes
Education

Manifesto pledges

  • Create a national education service, providing all children and adults free education for life
  • £7.2bn to scrap university tuition fees
  • Provide free school meals to all primary school children and reduce class sizes to under 30 across all schools in England, recruiting 20,000 extra teachers
  • Fund 30 hours’ free childcare for all two to four-year-olds and £1bn for 1,000 new early years Sure Start centres
  • Change tax rules for private schools and consider how they can be further integrated into a comprehensive education system
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Introduce a “real living wage” of £10 an hour in 2020 for all workers over the age of 16
  • Scrap universal credit, the “bedroom tax” and the two-child benefits limit, and increase the Carer’s Allowance for unpaid full-time carers
  • Scrap the rise in the state pension age, leaving it at 66, and compensate women hit by the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising the age
  • Increase statutory maternity pay from nine to 12 months, double paternity leave from two weeks to four and increase statutory paternity pay
  • Move to a 32-hour average working week within the next decade, with no loss of pay
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • £400bn national transformation fund, including £250bn for energy, transport and the environment, and £150bn for schools, hospitals and housing
  • A further £250bn in loans for a new national investment bank and a network of regional development banks – with oversight from devolved governments
  • Rail, mail, water and the energy grid taken back into public ownership and free full fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030
  • Create one million more jobs in the UK and a give a 5% increase to public sector workers in first year
  • Top 5% of earners to pay more income tax – including a new 50% rate on income above £125,000. Also increase corporation tax to 26%
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • £75bn for 100,000 new council homes a year by 2024 and 50,000 affordable homes a year through Housing Associations
  • Upgrade almost all of the UK’s 27 million homes to the highest energy-efficiency standards by 2030
  • Abolish right to buy and give councils money and power to buy back former council homes
  • End rough sleeping within five years
  • Cap rent increases and stop “no fault” evictions
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • Aim for net-zero energy emissions by the 2030s, 90% of electricity and 50% of heat from renewable and low-carbon sources by 2030
  • Lift the ban on new onshore wind farms, and invest in new solar, tidal and wind energy
  • Windfall tax on oil firms
  • Phase out petrol and diesel car sales by 2030
  • Plant two billion new trees in England by 2040 (100 million a year)
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Protect the rights of the three million EU citizens living in the UK
  • No fixed cap on net migration – the difference between those arriving in the UK and those leaving
  • An immigration system based on the needs of the economy and communities and a flexible work visa system
  • Compensation for victims of the Windrush immigration scandal
  • End indefinite detention, review alternatives to detention centres, and close Yarl’s Wood and Brook House centres
Transport

Manifesto pledges

  • Bring rail services back into public ownership as franchises expire
  • Restore 3,000 bus routes and give more local control of bus services
  • Extend free bus travel to all under-25s where routes are run by councils
  • Invest in transport infrastructure including building “Crossrail for the North” and completing HS2
  • Airport expansion to pass tests on air quality, noise pollution, climate change obligations and economic benefit
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Extend voting rights to 16 and 17-year-olds, and all UK residents in general elections
  • Abolish the House of Lords and replace it with an entirely elected second chamber
  • Oppose a second Scottish independence referendum in the early years of a Labour government
  • £5bn additional core funding for councils and bring council services, such as bin collections, back in-house within the next Parliament
  • £10.2bn for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

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Liberal Democrats

Leader

Jo Swinson

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Stop Brexit, which the party argues will release money to be spent on public services over the next five years
  • £20bn a year for five years to tackle climate change
  • 1p rise in income tax to invest in health and social care, allowing the NHS budget to be increased by £26bn a year by 2023-24
  • Recruit 20,000 more teachers and increase schools funding by £10.6bn a year by 2024/25
  • £130bn investment in infrastructure
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Oppose Brexit and campaign to Remain in the EU
  • Revoke Article 50, cancelling Brexit, if elected as a majority government
  • In other circumstances, campaign for a referendum with the option of staying in the EU on the ballot paper
NHS and care

Analysis: NHS promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • 1p rise in income tax to invest in health and social care, allowing the NHS budget to be increased by £26bn a year by 2023-24
  • Ringfence funding for mental health services to ensure mental and physical health are treated with equal importance
  • £10bn from the capital investment budget for equipment and buildings
  • End the shortage of GPs by 2025
  • Create an independent budget monitoring body for health and care, similar to the Office for Budget Responsibility
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Invest £1bn in community policing – enough for two new police officers in every ward, plus a 2% pay rise for police officers
  • Recruit 2,000 more prison officers
  • Introduce a legal, regulated market for cannabis
  • Increase the use of non-custodial punishments – curfews, community service and GPS tagging – rather than short prison sentences
  • Establish a new right to affordable, reasonable legal assistance and invest £500m to restore Legal Aid
Education

Manifesto pledges

  • Recruit 20,000 more teachers and increase schools funding by £10.6bn a year by 2024/25
  • Increase teachers’ starting salaries to £30,000 and guarantee a pay rise of at least 3% a year over the next Parliament
  • Free school meals for all primary school children and for all secondary school children whose families receive universal credit
  • £14.6bn for 35 hours a week of childcare for all two to four-year-olds, and for working parents from when their children are nine months
  • Reinstate maintenance grants for the poorest university students
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Increase work allowances under universal credit enabling people to work for longer before benefits are cut and introduce a second earner work allowance
  • Reduce the wait for the first benefits payment from five weeks to five days
  • Scrap the two-child limit on family benefits, the “bedroom tax” and the overall benefits cap
  • Scrap the Work Capability Assessment and reinstate the Independent Living Fund
  • Right to request a fixed-hours contract after 12 months for zero-hours and agency workers
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • £130bn investment in infrastructure, including renewable energy, transport and housing
  • Scrap business rates and replace them with a commercial, landowner levy
  • Restore corporation tax to 20% and abolish the capital gains tax allowance
  • £5bn investment in a new Green Investment Bank to attract private investment for public projects
  • £2bn to ensure access to high-speed broadband across the UK
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • Build 300,000 new homes a year by 2024, including 100,000 homes for social rent
  • Help young people get into rental market with government-backed tenancy deposit loans for all first-time renters under 30
  • £15bn over the next Parliament to retrofit insulation in 26 million homes
  • End rough sleeping within five years
  • Allow local authorities to increase council tax by up to 500% where homes are being bought as second homes
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • Climate action plan to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2045
  • Generate 80% of electricity from renewables by 2030 – and ban fracking
  • No more airport expansion and those who fly most to pay more tax
  • Ban on non-recyclable single-use plastics
  • Plant 60 million trees a year until 2045
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Create a new two-year visa for students to work after graduation
  • Remove the minimum income requirement for spouse and partner visas
  • Give asylum seekers the right to work three months after they have applied
  • End indefinite immigration detention by introducing a 28-day limit
  • Resettle 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children in the UK over the next 10 years and expand family reunion rights
Transport

Manifesto pledges

  • Every new car and small van sold to be electric by 2030
  • Extend the rail network – including High Speed 2 and Crossrail 2 – and convert the whole network to low-emission technology by 2035
  • Freeze rail fares for commuters and season ticket holders for five years
  • £4.5bn over five years to restore local bus routes
  • 10% of the transport budget to be spent on national walking and cycling schemes
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Scrap first-past-the-post and introduce proportional representation for general elections and local elections
  • Allow voting from the age of 16 and for all EU citizens who have been living in the UK for five years or more
  • Reform the House of Lords, cap donations to political parties and ban MPs from paid lobbying work
  • A written constitution for a federal United Kingdom – but no second independence referendum in Scotland
  • More devolution within England, a £50bn regional rebalancing programme, and £6.8bn funding and more powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland

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Independent Group for Change

Leader

Anna Soubry

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Hold another referendum on Brexit, campaigning for Remain
  • Achieve carbon net zero by 2045
  • Transition away from the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2030 and phase out non-essential plastics by 2025
Brexit

Pledges

  • Put the question of Brexit back to the British people for a “final say” in a referendum, campaigning for the UK to Remain in the EU
  • Maintain strong alliances with the UK’s closest European and international allies on trade, regulation, defence, security, the environment, aid, and counter-terrorism
NHS and care

Analysis: NHS promises in detail

Pledges

  • Legal right for workers to attend GP or hospital appointments
  • Health advice services to be made statutory
  • Role for local government in NHS commissioning
  • Cross-party commission to address long-term elderly social care finance
Crime

Pledges

  • More support in courts for victims and witnesses of crime
  • New sentencing powers and sanctions tailored to the offence with stronger deterrent measures, such as bans from driving or from social media
  • New programme of out-of-court mediation for parents who separate, plus compulsory “separating parents information programme”
Education

Pledges

  • Financial literacy to be included in the national curriculum
  • 20-week funded retraining sabbatical for anyone in need of a mid-career skills boost
  • Tax break to help those who have retrained with relocation costs if they’re moving for a new job
  • Tax breaks for successful employers who offer work placements to students about to leave school
Work and benefits

Pledges

  • Rights for workers to be notified of their shifts one month in advance
  • The right to bereavement leave following a death in the immediate family
  • Lower cap on pension fund management fees
  • Tax breaks for companies that offer longer-term secure career contracts to staff
Economy

Pledges

  • Flat rate of 30% for pensions tax relief
  • International tax avoidance treaty, enforced through a new body at the United Nations
  • Stronger government oversight of regulators, and an emphasis on the “public benefit interest” of corporate governance
  • Establish a long-term “fiscal trigger” mechanism that would advise governments on the level of stimulus required over the medium and long term
Housing

Pledges

  • Partnerships between the public and private sectors to deliver large-scale affordable housing in areas of high demand
  • Scale back business and agricultural property relief to generate revenues for social housing
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Pledges

  • Reach carbon net zero by 2045
  • Transition away from sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2030
  • Phase out non-essential single-use plastics by 2025
  • Higher standards for new-build housing, with all new stock built to carbon neutral standards by 2025
  • Develop a diverse energy base using a range of renewables, including hydrogen and tidal
Immigration

Pledges

  • Support free movement of people across Europe as with current membership of the EU
  • Encourage foreign students to come to the UK
  • E-identity system linked to National Insurance numbers to measure and enforce fair immigration rules
  • Establish a migration impact fund to give support to areas experiencing sharp population changes
Transport

Pledges

  • Support new capacity on rail continuing with the HS2 line connecting the East Midlands and Yorkshire
  • Improve bus services by allowing areas beyond London to have similar powers to regulate
Democracy

Pledges

  • Westminster’s second chamber to be reformed with representation from the devolved nations, regions and local government
  • Real powers for elected mayors with accountability to local residents and greater devolution of power to a local level across all layers of government
  • Compulsory voting in the UK with provision for abstention
  • Hold summit of the UK’s smaller political parties to discuss breaking “the cartel” of bigger established parties

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Green Party

Leaders

Jonathan Bartley, Sian Berry

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • £100bn a year for a decade to tackle climate change – mainly paid for by borrowing
  • Net-zero carbon emissions in the UK by 2030
  • Pursue a “green new deal” including a “structural transformation” of the way the economy works
  • Create more than a million new jobs through green investment
  • Introduce a People’s Vote Bill to implement another referendum on Brexit – will campaign to Remain
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Oppose Brexit
  • Committed to another referendum and will campaign to Remain in the EU in that vote
  • If the UK stays in the EU, campaign to change the way the bloc works in order to better tackle climate change and deliver rights and opportunities for all citizens
NHS and care

Analysis: NHS promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • Increase funding for the NHS by at least £6bn a year until 2030, with a further £1bn a year to reinstate nursing bursaries
  • £4.5bn a year to provide free social care for over-65s who need support in their own homes
  • Expand NHS provision to include dentistry, prescriptions and mental health treatment
  • Ensure a publicly funded NHS without private sector involvement
  • Make mental health a much higher priority with increased funding
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Scrap the Home Office and replace it with a Ministry for Sanctuary, responsible for migration, and a Ministry of the Interior, which will oversee domestic security
  • Restrict the use of stop-and-search
  • Reduce the number of short-term prison sentences, replacing them with restorative justice programmes
  • Make misogyny a hate crime and strengthen hate crime legislation
  • End the prohibition of drugs and create a system of legal regulation
Education

Manifesto pledges

  • Increase funding by at least £4bn a year
  • Reduce class sizes to under 20 in the long term
  • 35 hours a week free childcare from the age of nine months
  • £7.8bn to scrap university tuition fees. Will also write-off existing debt for graduates who have paid fees of £9,000 a year or more
  • Abolish Ofsted and restore local authority control over education
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • £86.2bn a year for a universal basic income, replacing the tax and benefits system, to be paid for by a carbon tax
  • Increase the living wage to £12 and extend it to workers aged between 16 and 21
  • Merge income tax, National Insurance, capital gains tax, inheritance tax and dividend tax into a single consolidated income tax
  • Replace council tax and business rates with a land value tax
  • 40% quota for women on major company boards
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • Borrow £94.4bn a year to pay for capital expenditure – such as building low-carbon homes, upgrading transport infrastructure and creating low-carbon jobs
  • An extra £124.4bn a year made from a number of tax changes – including raising corporation tax to 24%
  • Invest in and support new technologies to create new green jobs
  • Reduce National Insurance contributions for small businesses and set up a network of regional mutual banks to provide funding for start-up companies
  • Introduce fines for big businesses that fail to pay small businesses on time
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • 100,000 new zero-carbon homes for social rent each year
  • Scrap the Help to Buy and Right to buy programmes
  • Reform land taxes so that the burden is switched to large landowners
  • Nationwide insulation programme, covering every UK home that needs it by 2030, with 10 million homes to reach the top energy rating within 10 years
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • £100bn a year for a decade to tackle climate change and make Britain carbon neutral by 2030
  • Wind to provide about 70% of the UK’s electricity by 2030, with other renewable energies to provide most of the rest
  • Phase out petrol and diesel car sales by 2030
  • Ban the construction of nuclear power stations and fracking for gas and oil
  • Plant 700 million new trees and aim for 50% of all farms to be engaged in agroforestry by 2030
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Provide all migrants with access to legal advice, childcare and a subsistence allowance, and reintroduce legal aid
  • Scrap NHS charges for migrants
  • Scrap minimum income rules for visas
  • End the indefinite detention of all refugees and asylum seekers
  • Suspend deportation flights and allow refugees to work while they wait for a decision
Transport

Manifesto pledges

  • Scrap HS2, the road-building programme and airport expansion and use the money to invest in public transport
  • £12.2bn to upgrade rail capacity
  • £2.5 billion a year on new cycleways and footpaths
  • Establish a government-owned company to invest in a fleet of new electric trains to run on newly electrified lines
  • Give local authorities control over bus services and support them to restore lost bus routes and open new ones
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Scrap first-past-the-post electoral system and introduce proportional representation
  • Extend voting rights to 16 and 17-year-olds
  • Introduce an elected House of Lords
  • £10bn a year funding for councils and use panels and assemblies to boost public involvement in local government policy
  • Introduce job-sharing at all levels of government to make politics more accessible

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Brexit Party

Leader

Nigel Farage

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Leave all institutions of the EU and restore the primacy of UK law
  • Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deals the bloc has with Canada and Japan, with a new deadline of 1 July 2020
  • Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck
  • £200bn spending programme on infrastructure, wi-fi and services for young people
Brexit

Pledges

  • Condemn Boris Johnson’s deal as “not Brexit”
  • Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU – similar to the deal the bloc has with Canada – with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 to get it signed off
  • Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck
NHS and care

Analysis: NHS promises in detail

Pledges

  • Keep the NHS publicly-owned, with no private provision, and free at the point of use
  • Abolish hospital targets
  • 24-hour GP surgeries
  • Open nursing and midwifery professions to people without a degree and introduce a new nursing qualification in social care
Crime

Pledges

  • Increase police officer numbers
  • Introduce sentence ranges for young offenders to encourage rehabilitation
Education

Pledges

  • Scrap interest on student loans
  • Remove the 50% target for young people going into higher education
  • Ensure all young people have the choice between a high-quality apprenticeship, setting up their own business or pursuing further or higher education
Work and benefits

Pledges

  • 12-month review of universal credit and bring in reforms within two years
  • Review the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s state pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s
Economy

Pledges

  • £200bn spending programme on infrastructure – with money coming from scrapping HS2, not paying the EU divorce bill and halving aid spending
  • Reduce VAT to zero on domestic fuel to reduce energy bills
  • Abolish inheritance tax
  • £10,000 allowance for every UK company before paying corporation tax
  • Abolish business rates for shops outside the M25, funded by a “small online sales tax”
Housing

Pledges

  • Simplify the planning process for building on brownfield sites
  • Make it easier for councils to borrow from central government to build council houses
Immigration

Pledges

  • Cap on migration of 50,000 a year
  • Introduce a points-based immigration system
Transport

Pledges

  • Scrap HS2, but invest in road and rail projects across the regions
  • Invest £50bn in road and rail schemes in areas in most need
  • Free wi-fi on all public transport
Democracy

Pledges

  • Replace the first-past-the-post electoral system with proportional representation
  • Automatic referendums to be held if more than five million people sign a petition
  • Replace the House of Lords with a smaller, elected second chamber
  • Make it easier for constituents to force by-elections to oust MPs who switch parties during their terms of office
  • Reform of the postal voting system

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UKIP

Leader

Patricia Mountain

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Leave the EU immediately with no deal
  • Cut immigration to low, sustainable levels
  • £5.4bn a year for 30,000 more doctors and 40,000 more nurses
  • Education in schools to focus on making the UK self-sufficient
Brexit

Key policies

  • Leave the EU immediately with no deal
  • Move to World Trade Organization rules, then negotiate a free trade agreement with EU
  • Leave the EU common foreign, security and defence policies and bring an end to “EU command and control” of armed forces
  • Leave the Common Fisheries Policy and rebuild the fishing industry
NHS and care

Analysis: NHS promises in detail

Key policies

  • £2bn extra social care funding per year
  • End the practice of taking the value of people’s homes into account when assessing who can pay for care
  • Increase the number of training places for British doctors, nurses and paramedics
  • Charge all foreign nationals, including EU citizens, for using the NHS
  • Scrap hospital car parking charges and prescription charges in England
Crime

Key policies

  • Increase police officer numbers by at least 30,000
  • Stop policing being a degree-only profession and establish a way of entering via police training colleges
  • Reverse the privatisation of the prison system and renationalise the probation service
  • Deport foreign criminals
Education

Key policies

  • Encourage the establishment of new grammar schools as well as technical, vocational and specialist secondary schools
  • Pay off the student loans of British graduates of Stem subjects – science, technology, engineering and mathematics – while they are working in their field in the UK
  • Reverse the introduction of LGBT-inclusive and sex and relationship education
  • Encourage fewer university students and more trade apprenticeships
  • Education in schools to focus on making the UK self-sufficient
Work and benefits

Key policies

  • End the Work Capability Assessment and replace it with a system using qualified medical practitioners
  • Scrap the “bedroom tax”
  • No benefits paid to foreign nationals resident in the UK until they have paid tax for five years
  • Minimise the use of zero-hour contracts
Economy

Key policies

  • Raise personal tax allowance to £15,000 by 2024
  • Abolish inheritance tax
  • Remove VAT from domestic fuel, sanitary products and repairs to commercial, residential, historic and listed buildings
  • Create free ports – tax-free zones – in the north of England to boost manufacturing and create 150,000 jobs
Housing

Key policies

  • Five-year residency qualification for any non-UK buyers of residential property
  • Encourage the building of modular housing, made by British companies
  • Abolish stamp duty for UK citizens on primary residences
  • Social housing for UK citizens only
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Key policies

  • Scrap the Climate Change Act and withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement and carbon trading schemes
  • End subsidies for wind turbines and large areas of solar panels
  • Rejuvenate the UK’s coal industry and end the combustion of wood pellets from overseas forests in former coal power stations
  • Protect the green belt and countryside from large-scale development
Immigration

Key policies

  • Reduce immigration to low, sustainable levels
  • Introduce time-limited work permits for skilled workers
  • UK Border Force will become the Migration Control Department, overseeing all immigration and border control
  • Withdraw the UK from the Barcelona Declaration (1995), Marrakesh Declaration (2018) and UN Global Migration Compact (2018), which all cover co-operation on migration
Transport

Key policies

  • Scrap HS2 and use some of the money saved on upgrading existing railway lines and metro rail systems
  • Oppose the expansion of Heathrow Airport, but encourage investment in regional airports
  • Scrap road tolls
  • Repeal EU regulations requiring GPS trackers in all vehicles and oppose pay-as-you-go road pricing
Democracy

Key policies

  • Introduce proportional representation in all elections
  • Hold a referendum on the future of the House of Lords with options to abolish it or make it a fully democratic second chamber
  • Hold referendums on scrapping the Welsh Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and Stormont
  • End postal voting fraud, by allowing postal voting only in exceptional circumstances

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Wales

Labour

Leaders

Jeremy Corbyn, Welsh leader: Mark Drakeford

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • More money for Wales to invest in the NHS, education, local government and the police
  • Green “industrial revolution”, investing in good, unionised green jobs across the country
  • Scrap the public sector pay cap
  • Invest in infrastructure projects across Wales, include building a Swansea Bay tidal lagoon and a new nuclear power station on Anglese
  • Introduce a real living wage of at least £10 an hour for all ages
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Renegotiate a Brexit deal and legislate for a public vote to take place within six months, with the choice of a “sensible leave deal” or Remain
  • Welsh Labour will campaign to Remain in that referendum
  • Remove the threat of no-deal
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Labour-led Welsh governments have introduced free prescriptions, free hospital parking, and presumed consent for organ donation
  • Continue to invest in NHS staff and stop attempts to undermine their terms and conditions
  • Oppose any privatisation of the NHS in Wales, which is run by publicly-appointed health boards
  • NHS Wales to play a key role in making Wales’ public sector carbon neutral by 2030
  • More integration with social care, to be funded via a tax or levy, but possibly on a UK-wide basis
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Reverse cuts to prison staff and prisons, improve pay and conditions
  • Reverse cuts to legal aid
  • Examine proposed UK Royal Commission on substance misuse
  • Recruit extra police officers and prioritise neighbourhood policing
  • Devolve criminal justice and appoint ex-Lord Chief Justice Lord Thomas to head an independent commission to develop the detail
Education

Campaign points

  • Schools to remain under local authority control and be comprehensive – no grammars, academies or free schools
  • Instead of league tables, schools to remain colour-coded to indicate whether they need any support
  • Students from Wales to continue to get grants to cover living costs, with loans to cover tuition fees
  • Sats were scrapped more than a decade ago in favour of other tests
  • 30 hours free childcare for three and four-year-olds
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Increase the number of employers paying a living wage in Wales and introduce a “real living wage” of £10 an hour in 2020 for all workers over the age of 16
  • Scrap universal credit, the “bedroom tax” and the two-child benefits limit, and increase the Carer’s Allowance for unpaid full-time carers
  • Scrap the rise in the state pension age, leaving it at 66, and compensate women hit by the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising the age
  • Increase statutory maternity pay from nine to 12 months, double paternity leave from two weeks to four and increase statutory paternity pay
  • Move to a 32-hour average working week within the next decade, with no loss of pay
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • A focus on the “foundation” economy – essential goods and services that communities depend on, namely tourism, food, retail and care
  • A development bank has been launched
  • A “green industrial revolution” to help industries and communities throughout Wales
  • Public sector procurement to use Wales-based firms where possible
  • Create 100,000 all-age apprenticeships between 2016-21
Housing

Campaign points

  • Abolished the “right to buy” to protect the stock of social housing
  • Target of 20,000 extra affordable homes from 2016-21 through new builds and repairing empty properties
  • Keep the Land Registry in the public sector to make land ownership in Wales more transparent
  • End homelessness, especially for young people
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • The Labour Welsh government declared a climate emergency in May, and pledged to aim for zero emissions by 2050
  • Labour Welsh Government ministers have engaged in dialogue with Extinction Rebellion
  • Prioritise public transport over new roads eg developing metro systems in south and north Wales, and scrapping plans for a new motorway in south Wales
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Protect the rights of the three million EU citizens living in the UK
  • No fixed cap on net migration – the difference between those arriving in the UK and those leaving
  • An immigration system based on the needs of the economy and communities and a flexible work visa system
  • Compensation for victims of the Windrush immigration scandal
  • End indefinite detention, review alternatives to detention centres, and close Yarl’s Wood and Brook House centres
Transport

Campaign points

  • Promote public transport by developing the South Wales and North Wales metros, in preference to major road programmes
  • Extra funding from a UK Labour government to help local bus services and extend young people’s discounted travel scheme
  • Commit to rail electrification and improve planning of walking and cycling routes
  • Accelerate plans for all Welsh taxis and buses to have a zero carbon footprint within 10 years
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Support votes for 16-year-olds and the renaming of the Welsh Assembly as a parliament
  • Against the idea of changing the number and way members are elected to the Welsh Assembly, and retaining a mix of first-past-the-post and regional lists to give a more proportional outcome
  • Support a more federal UK to preserve the union

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Conservative

Leaders

Boris Johnson, Welsh leader: Paul Davies

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Deliver Brexit with the deal agreed with the EU
  • 20,000 more police officers over the next three years in England and Wales
  • Additional money for schools and hospitals in England may mean more money in the budget of the National Assembly for Wales, but it would be up to the Welsh Government to decide how it is spent
  • Hundreds of millions of pounds for Wales to invest in transport, broadband and improving communities
  • Marches Growth Deal to improve infrastructure supporting the economy on the Wales-England border
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January
  • Negotiate free trade agreement with EU to come into force in 2021
  • Will not extend the transition period after the UK’s departure beyond December 2020
  • End to freedom of movement between the EU and the UK and a new points-based immigration system
  • Negotiate free trade agreements with other trading partners around the world
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Cost of care to be capped and people guaranteed to keep £100,000 of assets once care bill paid
  • Statutory entitlement to carer’s leave for working people
  • Increase available funding for the Welsh NHS by £1.9bn from 2018-2023
  • Build rapid diagnostic centres in North, Mid and South Wales to speed up access and cut visits to hospitals
  • Double research funding into dementia and speed up trials for new treatments
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • 20,000 more police officers for England and Wales over the next three years
  • 10,000 extra prison places and £2.5bn for improving prisons
  • Criminals imprisoned for four years or more to serve at least two-thirds of their sentence before release
  • Tougher sentences for violent and sexual offenders as well as animal cruelty
  • Greater freedom for police to stop and search those known to have carried knives, and anyone caught unlawfully with a knife to be immediately arrested, charged within 24 hours and in court within a week
Education

Campaign points

  • An extra £14bn for schools in England will mean a substantial increase in funding for the Welsh Government
  • Remove schools from local authority control, with funding to come directly from the Welsh Government
  • Working towards consistency in the recognition of technical education qualifications across the UK
  • Introducing modern foreign language learning in primary schools
  • Consider compressed degrees studied over two academic years and encourage the growth of part-time, distance and flexible course options
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • No rises in income tax or National Insurance rates
  • Raise the threshold at which individuals pay National Insurance to £9,500 in the first Budget and, later, to £12,500
  • Raise the national living wage to £10.50 an hour by 2024 for those over the age of 21
  • Keep the triple lock, the winter fuel payment and other pensioner benefits
  • Continue the roll-out of universal credit system
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • UK-wide “shared prosperity fund” to replace EU structural funds post-Brexit
  • Full fibre and gigabit-capable broadband to every home and business in Wales by 2025
  • Marches Growth Deal to improve infrastructure supporting the economy on the Wales-England border
  • Support for Welsh car manufacturing as the industry changes to building electric vehicles
  • Reform business rates in Wales
Housing

Campaign points

  • Reinstate right-to-buy, which has been abolished in Wales
  • 12,000 homes built per annum
  • A minister in the Welsh Government cabinet responsible for housing and planning
  • Land transaction tax rebates for homes that improve their energy efficiency standard
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • Fund more research into tidal energy around the Welsh coast
  • Promote interest in building commercially viable tidal lagoons in North, South and West Wales
  • Halt approvals of large incinerators until a national plan is developed
  • Set up a Welsh flood defence fund to invest in improvements
  • Improve energy efficiency of Welsh homes, schools and hospital and support clean transport
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Establish immigration controls and end freedom of movement after Brexit
  • Introduce an Australian-style points-based system, which treats all migrants equally regardless of where they come from
  • EU citizens to wait five years before accessing benefits and to pay an NHS surcharge – like other migrants
  • Bring in an “NHS visa” that would make it easier for doctors and nurses from around the world to work in the UK
  • Introduce a “start-up visa” to attract entrepreneurs
Transport

Campaign points

  • Upgrade the A55 as the main transport artery for North Wales
  • A new arm’s-length body to deliver an integrated transport system
  • A new smart card travel scheme, for use on different modes of public transport throughout Wales
  • A consultation on increasing the speed limit to 80mph on the M4 and A55
  • Fund the building of the West Wales Parkway station outside Swansea
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Photo ID requirement for voting
  • Make it easier for UK expatriates to vote, getting rid of the 15-year limit on their voting rights
  • Updated and equal Parliamentary boundaries so that every vote counts the same
  • Maintain the ban on prisoners voting in Wales and England
  • Won’t join the committee on electoral reform, which is considering increasing the number of AMs, the system by which they would be elected, and the voting age for Assembly and Welsh local elections

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Plaid Cymru

Leader

Adam Price

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Second referendum on Brexit
  • Devote an extra 1% of GDP to green investment over 10 years, giving Wales a share worth £15bn
  • £20bn for a Welsh “green jobs revolution”, investing in renewable energy, transport infrastructure and digital services
  • Lift children out of poverty via new payments for children in low-income families, and a “once in a generation” £300m boost for education
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Opposed to Brexit and campaigning to Remain in EU
  • Want a referendum on final Brexit terms
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Train and recruit an additional 1,000 doctors, 5,000 nurses and 100 new dentists for the Welsh NHS in the next decade
  • Free social care for the elderly through a new national health and social care service
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Devolution of criminal justice and policing
  • A new £50m crime prevention fund to recruit 1,600 new police officers
  • Increase legal aid funding
  • New laws to protect victims of crime
  • Establish a national commission to examine changing legislation on drug dependency
Education

Campaign points

  • Extra £300m a year for Welsh schools and colleges
  • New network of specialist vocational education colleges for those aged 14+ in post-compulsory education
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • £35 a week payment for every child in a low-income family
  • Tax credit of up to £25 a week for tenants in the private sector who spend more than 30% of their income on rent and utility bills
  • Powers over social security devolved to Wales
  • Abolish the “bedroom tax”
  • Universal free childcare for 40 hours a week
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • Call on the Treasury to raise Wales’ borrowing limit from £1bn to £5bn, to pay for green schemes
  • £5bn EU transformation fund for Wales to tackle social inequality
  • Devolve powers on corporation tax, air passenger duty and VAT for Wales
  • Publicly-owned full fibre broadband by 2025 and 5G mobile signal across Wales
  • Double funding for Visit Wales and cut tourism VAT
Housing

Campaign points

  • 20,000 green social houses and a £5bn home energy efficiency programme
  • Strengthen the rights of consumers who buy new-build houses
  • Major investment in affordable homes
  • Introduce rent relief for people who pay more than 30% of their income on rent
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • A £20bn Welsh “green jobs revolution” – investing in renewables, infrastructure, and digital services, and creating tens of thousands of jobs
  • Build tidal lagoons in Swansea Bay, Cardiff and Colwyn Bay, an offshore wind farm off Anglesey and a barrage on the River Usk
  • Wales to be 100% self-sufficient in renewable electricity by 2035
  • Wales to be a carbon neutral and single-use plastic free nation by 2030
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Introduce Welsh-specific visas
  • Take international students out of net migration targets
Transport

Campaign points

  • Electrify all mainline rail lines by 2030, the south Wales Valley Lines and North Wales Coast railway and re-open rail services in the Amman, Tawe, Neath, and Dulais valleys
  • A south east Wales “super metro” transport system, metro for Swansea Bay and the western valleys and for north east Wales
  • Introduce a Wales-wide smart card ticketing service for public transport passengers
  • Re-regulate buses
  • Roads investment to focus on improving links between north and south Wales as well as along the main east-west transport corridors
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Support independence for Wales
  • Votes for 16 and 17-year-olds in all elections

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Liberal Democrats

Leaders

Jo Swinson, Welsh leader: Jane Dodds

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Stop Brexit
  • Tackle climate change with support for renewable energy, home insulation, energy positive homes, and green transport
  • Education funding in England will mean more money for Wales
Brexit

Key policies

  • Oppose Brexit and campaign to remain in the EU
  • Revoke Article 50, cancelling Brexit, if elected as a majority government
  • In other circumstances, campaign for a referendum with the option of staying in the EU on the ballot paper
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • A penny in the pound on income tax, enabling Wales to spend more on the NHS and social services
  • Mental health made a funding priority
  • Set up a UK-wide health and social care convention to review the system, with the Welsh Government invited to take part and to work with a Wales-only commission
  • Introduce a Welsh NHS whistleblowers hotline
Crime

Key policies

  • Create a distinct legal jurisdiction for Wales
  • Devolve powers over youth justice, probation services, prisons and policing
  • Invest £1bn across England and Wales to restore community policing, enough for two new police officers in every ward
  • Abolish police and crime commissioners, replacing them with local boards
  • Fund a 2% pay rise for police officers
Education

Campaign points

  • £560m cash boost for Wales due to spending in England
  • A new curriculum for Welsh schools from 2022
  • Cut infant class sizes
  • New system for pupils with additional learning needs from 2021
  • New rules on school uniform, making it more affordable and offering gender-neutral options
Work and benefits

Key policies

  • Increase work allowances under universal credit enabling people to work for longer before benefits are cut and introduce a second earner work allowance
  • Reduce the wait for the first benefits payment from five weeks to five days
  • Scrap the two-child limit on family benefits, the “bedroom tax” and the overall benefits cap
  • Scrap the Work Capability Assessment and reinstate the Independent Living Fund
  • Right to request a fixed-hours contract after 12 months for zero-hours and agency workers
Economy

Key policies

  • Reform the business rates system, prioritising the digital economy
  • New £50bn UK infrastructure plan, with Welsh Government involved in agreeing how it is spent
  • Support the creation of a Welsh Development Bank
Housing

Campaign points

  • New social homes to be accessible and low-carbon
  • Examine the case for reforming planning law to promote increased affordable house building
  • Additional funding for local authorities to ensure adequate provision of emergency accommodation
  • Each local authority to have at least one “housing first” project – aimed at ending homelessness
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • Give the green light to the Swansea Tidal Lagoon
  • Change taxation on fossil fuels
  • Give additional funding to bring more private investment into renewable energy
  • Establish a Wales-wide deposit return scheme if a UK-wide scheme is not feasible
  • Support a UK-wide single-use plastics tax
Immigration

Key policies

  • Create a new two-year visa for students to work after graduation
  • Remove the minimum income requirement for spouse and partner visas
  • Give asylum seekers the right to work three months after they have applied
  • End indefinite immigration detention by introducing a 28-day limit
  • Resettle 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children in the UK over the next 10 years and expand family reunion rights
Transport

Campaign points

  • Press for the full electrification of Welsh railway lines including the North Wales Coast Line
  • Introduce an all-Wales Oyster card-style service
  • Scrap the Anglesey-Cardiff air link
  • Devolve air passenger duty
Democracy

Key policies

  • Introduce a written, federal constitution that would make the National Assembly for Wales a permanent institution
  • Proportional representation for local and Westminster elections
  • Lower the voting age to 16 for all elections and referendums
  • Reform the House of Lords to give it a democratic mandate
  • Enable UK citizens living abroad to vote for MPs in separate overseas constituencies, and to participate in UK referendums

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Brexit Party

Leaders

Nigel Farage, Welsh lead candidate: Nathan Gill

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Leave all institutions of the EU and restore the primacy of UK law
  • Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deals the bloc has with Canada and Japan, with a new deadline of 1 July 2020
  • Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck
  • £200bn spending programme on infrastructure, wi-fi and services for young people
  • Invest £12bn in Wales out of the £200bn invested across the UK over a five-year parliamentary term
Brexit

Pledges

  • Condemn Boris Johnson’s deal as “not Brexit”
  • Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deal the bloc has with Canada with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 to get it signed off
  • Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Invest in the Welsh NHS and social care, with more medical staff and less waste
  • Discuss ring-fencing the Welsh NHS budget
  • Ensure the Welsh NHS remains a publicly-owned, comprehensive service and free at the point of use
  • Build extra GP surgeries
Crime

Pledges

  • Increase police officer numbers
  • Introduce sentence ranges for young offenders to encourage rehabilitation
  • Aim for a 10% increase in police officers in Wales
Education

Campaign points

  • Oppose the Welsh Government’s proposed smacking ban
  • Scrap all interest paid on student tuition fees
  • Welsh universities to be made to compensate students for college strikes
Work and benefits

Pledges

  • 12-month review of universal credit and bring in reforms within two years
  • Review the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s state pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s
Economy

Pledges

  • £200bn spending programme on infrastructure – with money coming from scrapping HS2, not paying the EU divorce bill and halving aid spending
  • Reduce VAT to zero on domestic fuel to reduce energy bills
  • Abolish inheritance tax
  • £10,000 allowance for every UK company before paying corporation tax
  • Abolish business rates for shops outside the M25, funded by a “small online sales tax”
Housing

Campaign points

  • Simplify the planning process for building on brownfield sites
  • Make it easier for councils to borrow from central government to build council houses
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • Recycle all waste within the UK and make it illegal to export it overseas
  • Plant tens of millions of trees
  • Welsh Government must tackle air pollution and deliver convenient car charging points
Immigration

Pledges

  • Cap on migration of 50,000 a year
  • Introduce a points-based immigration system
Transport

Campaign points

  • Build the M4 relief road
Democracy

Pledges

  • Maintain the voting age of 18
  • Oppose giving prisoners the vote
  • Against expanding the Welsh Assembly to have more members
  • Calling for a register of lobbyists to be set up by the Welsh Government
  • Cut the number of Welsh councils from 22 to 12 by asking most to merge, and reduce councillors by one-third to a half

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Green Party

Leaders

Jonathan Bartley, Sian Berry

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Urgent action on climate change and biodiversity
  • “Fairer” funding for Wales, reversing public sector cuts
  • A referendum on any Brexit deal
Brexit

Key policies

  • Oppose Brexit
  • Committed to another referendum and will campaign to Remain in the EU in that vote
  • If the UK stays in the EU, campaign to change the way the bloc works in order to better tackle climate change and deliver rights and opportunities for all citizens
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Oppose any privatisation of the NHS
  • Place greater emphasis on community and social care services
  • More funding for preventative care
  • More funding for mental health services
Crime

Key policies

  • Scrap the Home Office and replace it with a Ministry for Sanctuary, responsible for migration, and a Ministry of the Interior, which will oversee domestic security
  • Restrict the use of stop-and-search
  • Reduce the number of short-term prison sentences, replacing them with restorative justice programmes
  • Make misogyny a hate crime and strengthen hate crime legislation
  • End the prohibition of drugs and create a system of legal regulation
Education

Campaign points

  • Free universal early education and childcare services
  • End the programme of school closures, especially in rural areas
  • Fund lifelong learning for alL
Work and benefits

Key policies

  • £86.2bn a year for a universal basic income, replacing the tax and benefits system, to be paid for by a carbon tax
  • Increase the living wage to £12 and extend it to workers aged between 16 and 21
  • Merge income tax, National Insurance, capital gains tax, inheritance tax and dividend tax into a single consolidated income tax
  • Replace council tax and business rates with a land value tax
  • 40% quota for women on major company boards
Economy

Key policies

  • A “green new deal”, transforming the way the economy works
  • Create high-quality jobs and end workplace exploitation
  • Tackle wage inequality
  • Introduce a universal basic income
  • Phase in a four-day week
Housing

Campaign points

  • Provide sustainable, affordable housing for all, including 12,000 new homes per year in Wales
  • Introduce right to rent legislation
  • Invest in making Wales’ housing stock energy efficient
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • Make Wales a leader in tackling climate change
  • Raise the ambition of emissions reduction targets
  • Support for community-owned renewable energy schemes
  • Support for necessary green infrastructure, such as the proposed Swansea Tidal Lagoon
Immigration

Key policies

  • Provide all migrants with access to legal advice, childcare and a subsistence allowance, and reintroduce legal aid
  • Scrap NHS charges for migrants
  • Scrap minimum income rules for visas
  • End the indefinite detention of all refugees and asylum seekers
  • Suspend deportation flights and allow refugees to work while they wait for a decision
Transport

Campaign points

  • Oppose all airport expansion and environmentally destructive road building schemes
  • Invest in sustainable transport solutions
  • Create sustainable, efficient and affordable public transport across Wales
Democracy

Key policies

  • Greater devolution of powers to local level
  • Proportional representation for elections at every level of government
  • Votes at 16 for all elections
  • Support the recommendations of the McAllister report on reforming the National Assembly for Wales

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Scotland

Scottish National Party

Leader

Nicola Sturgeon

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Referendum on Scottish independence in 2020
  • Keep Scotland in the EU, single market and customs union – options include a referendum with Remain on the ballot paper if needed
  • Greater powers for the Scottish Parliament
  • End austerity
  • Introduce an NHS Protection Bill to block UK governments from using the NHS in trade talks
Brexit

Pledges

  • Campaign to prevent Brexit and keep Scotland in the single market and customs union
  • Support a second EU referendum with Remain as an option
  • Revoke Article 50 if it is the only alternative to a no-deal Brexit
NHS and care

Pledges

  • Call for an increase in health spending in England which would result in an increase to the amount of money available for the Scottish NHS
  • Keep Scotland’s NHS in public hands
  • Introduce an NHS Protection Bill to block UK governments from using the NHS in trade talks
  • Lobby the UK government to introduce a supervised drug consumption facility in Scotland
Crime

Pledges

  • Continue to make the case to the UK government to rebate the £140m in VAT charged to Scotland’s emergency services
  • Encourage the UK government to match the 6.5% increase in police in Scotland reducing the need for Police Scotland to support forces elsewhere
  • Call for the UK government to devolve control over drug policy to the Scottish Parliament
  • Introduce a new law to establish emergency protective orders to help the victims of domestic abuse
Education

Pledges

  • Invest £750m to tackle the attainment gap between pupils from the least and most wealthy backgrounds
  • Give schools more freedom over the curriculum, funding and staffing
  • A fifth of students entering university to be from the 20% most deprived areas in Scotland by 2030
  • Maintain free university tuition at Scottish universities
  • Expand childcare to 30 hours per week for all three and four-year-olds and vulnerable two-year-olds – saving families over £4,500 per child each year
Work and benefits

Pledges

  • Demand UK government halts the rollout of Universal Credit until “fundamental flaws” are addressed
  • Oppose and increase to the state pension age and campaign against decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s
  • Press for the statutory living wage to rise to at least the level of the real living wage
  • Increase shared parental leave from 52 to 64 weeks, with the additional 12 weeks to be the minimum taken by the father
  • Make the minimum wage for 16 to 24-year-olds the same as for over 25s, and ban unpaid trial shifts
Economy

Pledges

  • Protect Scotland’s “fair and progressive” tax system
  • Invest £2bn in Scotland’s economy by establishing a Scottish national investment bank
  • Bring a “real” end to austerity
  • Secure Scotland’s membership of the European single market and the customs union, protecting access for Scottish business
Housing

Pledges

  • £25m over three years to build new, affordable homes in rural Scotland
  • Build 50,000 affordable homes by 2021
  • Help first-time buyers get on the property ladder by lending them a portion of their deposit
  • Eradicate rough sleeping in Scotland, backed by a £50m fund
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Pledges

  • Demand the UK accelerates its action to meet Scotland’s climate change targets of a 75% reduction in emissions by 2035, net zero carbon emissions no later than 2040 and net zero of all emissions by 2045,
  • Call for a reduction in VAT on energy efficiency improvements in homes
  • Aim to plant 60m trees annually in the UK by 2025, with 30m of these in Scotland
  • All new homes to use renewable or low carbon heat from 2024
  • Campaign for the UK to remain aligned with EU environmental regulations even if Brexit takes place
Immigration

Pledges

  • Campaign for EU nationals to be given automatic right to remain and full protection of their rights
  • Push for devolution of migration powers to the Scottish Parliament or a separate Scottish visa system
  • Push for Scottish government to have a role in deciding the “shortage occupation list” in order to attract the workers Scotland needs
Transport

Pledges

  • Invest £500m in new bus infrastructure
  • Ensure there can be a “robust” public sector bid for the next ScotRail franchise
  • Call for the devolution of Network Rail in Scotland to Scottish Parliament
  • Reduce emissions from Scotland’s railways to zero by 2035
  • Introduce initiative to ensure more people choose to make everyday journeys on foot or by bike
Democracy

Pledges

  • Referendum on Scottish independence in 2020
  • Support votes for 16 and 17-year-olds, as well as EU nationals, in UK elections to match the franchise in Scotland
  • Extend the right to vote in Scottish elections to citizens of all nationalities legally resident
  • Replace the House of Lords with an elected second chamber
  • Protect the Scottish Parliament from a “power grab” by Westminster

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Scottish Conservatives

Leaders

Boris Johnson, Acting Scottish leader: Jackson Carlaw

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Oppose a second referendum on independence
  • Bring back the Withdrawal Agreement Bill to Parliament before Christmas to achieve Brexit by the end of January
  • Additional £3.1bn funding for Scotland over four years as a consequence of investments in England
  • No rises in National Insurance contributions or VAT
  • Introduce an Australian-style points-based immigration system, which treats everyone equally regardless of where they come from
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Deliver Brexit on the deal agreed with the EU
  • Negotiate Free Trade Agreement with EU to come into force in 2021
  • Will not extend the transition period after the UK’s departure beyond 2021
  • End to freedom of movement between the EU and the UK and a new points-based immigration system
  • Negotiate Free Trade Agreements with other trading partners around the world
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • £2bn additional funding for Scotland as a result of additional funding for the NHS in England – enough for 5,000 extra nurses and five million more GP appointments, but with the Scottish government to decide on specific spending
  • Pressure the Scottish government to increase the share of NHS funding going to GPs
  • Recover the cost of medical treatment from people not resident in the UK
  • Greater focus on early intervention by encouraging sports participation and a healthy lifestyle
  • Expand mental health education in Scottish schools
Crime

Campaign points

  • Introduce whole-life sentences
  • Pass on funding boosts to Police Scotland received as a result of UK government funding for the police in England and Wales
  • Strengthen the National Crime Agency to counter the threat of serious and organised crime
Education

Campaign points

  • Scottish government will receive funding boosts as a result of UK government spending pledges for education in England
  • Greater focus on core skills, like literacy and numeracy, and refresh the Curriculum for Excellence
  • Introduce a renewed vocational education system
  • Tackle teacher shortages
Work and benefits

Campaign points

  • Raise the threshold at which individuals pay National Insurance to £9,500 in the first Budget and, later, to £12,500
  • Raise the national living wage to £10.50 an hour by 2024 for those over the age of 21
  • Keep the triple lock, the winter fuel payment and other pensioner benefits
  • Continue the roll-out of universal credit system
  • New “collective” workplace pension schemes and new controls on transferring pensions and a review of state pension inequality for Waspi women
Economy

Campaign points

  • Stop increasing income tax differences between Scotland and the rest of the UK
  • Cut corporation tax from 28% to 19%
  • Fund for full fibre broadband to every home by 2025
  • Review the alcohol duty on gin and Scotch whisky
  • “Transformational” sector deal for the North Sea oil and gas industry to help as the UK moves to a net zero economy
Housing

Campaign points

  • Build eight new towns across Scotland
  • Dedicated secretary for housing and infrastructure in the Scottish government and a new housing and infrastructure agency
  • Funding passed to Scottish government as a result of plans for other parts of UK to fund environmental upgrades to homes, such as grants for improving boilers and insulation
  • A new mortgage with long-term fixed rates only requiring a 5% deposit to help renters buy their first homes
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • Net-zero emissions by 2050 and ask global partners to match that ambition at the UN Climate Change Summit in Glasgow in 2020
  • Funding boosts to the Scottish government as a result of funding in England to improve the energy efficiency of homes, schools and hospitals
  • Ban the export of plastic waste to developing countries and make producers responsible for the full cost of dealing with the waste they produce
  • Encourage the Scottish government to adopt proposals that pay farmers for environmental stewardship
  • Introduce a legal commitment to fish sustainably
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • End freedom of movement for EU citizens
  • Give EU citizens until December 2020 to apply for settled status
  • Introduce an Australian points-based system
  • Bring in an “NHS visa” that would make it easier for doctors and nurses from around the world to work in the UK
Transport

Campaign points

  • Encourage active travel by investing in local walking and cycling paths, as well as measures that join up other modes of transport
  • Continue to support a road maintenance fund, giving local authorities the chance to bid for additional funding to fix poor roads faster
  • Extend the national concessionary travel scheme to community transport
  • Funding boosts to the Scottish government as a result of funding in England for repairs and upgrades to the road network
Democracy

Campaign points

  • Oppose a second referendum on independence
  • Decentralise more power to local level
  • Introduce a UK shared prosperity fund, to be used to tackle inequality and deprivation in each nation
  • Get rid of the fixed term parliament act and review parliamentary boundaries
  • Maintain the voting age at 18 for UK-wide elections and continue to support the First Past the Post voting system

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Scottish Labour

Leaders

Jeremy Corbyn, Scottish leader: Richard Leonard

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Renegotiate a Brexit deal within three months and hold a public vote within six months, with the negotiated deal alongside Remain on the ballot paper
  • Oppose a second referendum on Scottish independence during “early years” of Labour government
  • Invest about £100bn of additional resources in Scotland over the next 10 years
  • Free full fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030
  • £10bn towards funding 120,000 council and social homes in Scotland over the next 10 years, and £6bn for retrofitting houses across Scotland to make them more energy efficient
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Renegotiate a Brexit deal within three months and hold a public vote within six months, with the negotiated deal alongside Remain on the ballot paper
  • Scottish Labour will wholeheartedly back Remain
  • Negotiate UK-wide customs union membership, close single market allignment and guarantees on workers’ rights and environmental protections
  • Any agreement to meet the UK’s international obligations, particularly the Good Friday Agreement
  • Remove the threat of no-deal
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • “Huge” increase in NHS funding, paid for by higher taxes on big corporations
  • Invest in the NHS workforce, increasing places for medical students and improving numbers in GP training
  • More resources for local surgeries and community services
  • Abolish all charges for social care at home
Crime

Campaign points

  • Extra funding to recruit police officers
  • More capital funding for Police Scotland
  • Reform sentencing policy, with a focus on transparency, prioritising public safety and rehabilitation
Education

Campaign points

  • Scrap assessments for Primary 1 pupils, and review them at P4, P7 and S3 levels
  • Halt the teaching of three and four different levels in classes
  • More funding for children with additional support needs
  • More funding for schools to ensure the Pupil Equity Fund – paid to head teachers to help disadvantaged children – is “truly additional”
  • Reform the student support system, beginning by implementing a minimum student income of about £9,500 a year – based on a £10 an hour income for 25 hours of study time each week
Work and benefits

Campaign points

  • Introduce a real living wage of £10 an hour in 2020 for all workers over the age of 16, giving about 700,000 Scottish workers a pay rise
  • Scrap universal credit and increase child benefit
  • Scrap the rise in the state pension age, leaving it at 66 and compensate women hit by the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising the age
  • Move to a 32-hour average working week within the next decade, with no loss of pay
  • Increase statutory maternity pay from nine to 12 months, double paternity leave from two weeks to four and increase statutory paternity pay
Economy

Campaign points

  • £100bn of additional resources in Scotland over the next 10 years 8 £20bn in loans for a new Scottish National Investment Bank with lending power to deliver funds to local projects and small businesses
  • Rail, mail and the energy grid taken back into public ownership and free full fibre broadband for every home and business in the UK by 2030. Water is already in public ownership in Scotland.
  • Ask large corporations to pay more by increasing corporation tax to 26%
  • Public sector chief executives to earn no more than 20 times someone on the living wage – meaning a maximum salary of about £350,000
Housing

Campaign points

  • Cap private rent rises and regulate short-term lets
  • Significantly expand building of council and social houses
  • Scrap “help to buy” and replace it with a more targeted scheme to help first-time buyers on lower incomes
  • Equal right of appeal in planning applications
  • End rough sleeping within five years
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • Windfall tax on oil firms
  • Cut emissions and aim for net-zero emissions by the 2030s
  • Phase out petrol and diesel car sales by 2030
  • Create 50,000 sustainable jobs in low-carbon industries
  • Build up public transport networks across the country
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Protect the rights of EU citizens living in the UK
  • No fixed cap on net migration – the difference between those arriving in the UK and those leaving
  • An immigration system based on the needs of the economy and communities and a flexible work visa system
  • Compensation for victims of the Windrush immigration scandal
  • End indefinite detention, review alternatives to detention centres, and close Yarl’s Wood and Brook House centres
Transport

Campaign points

  • Take ScotRail into the public sector when franchise expires
  • Restore bus routes and provide more local control over bus services
  • Extend free bus travel to under-25s where routes are run by councils
  • Extend high-speed rail networks nationwide by completing the full HS2 route to Scotland
Democracy

Campaign points

  • Oppose a second referendum on Scottish independence during early years of Labour government
  • Extend voting rights to 16 and 17-year-olds, and all UK residents in general elections
  • Abolish the House of Lords and replace it with an entirely elected second chamber

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Scottish Liberal Democrats

Leaders

Jo Swinson, Scottish leader: Willie Rennie

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Stop Brexit, which the party argues will release money to invest in public services and tackle inequality
  • Oppose a second referendum on independence
  • Improve mental health services
Brexit

Key policies

  • Boost spending on the NHS in England, which would mean extra money coming to Scotland because of the Barnett formula
  • Transform mental health support, giving it parity with physical health and ending long waits for treatment
  • Train more mental health professionals and co-locate them with GPs, the police, at A&E and in prisons
  • Enable the establishment of safe injecting services and heroin-assisted treatment in Glasgow and elsewhere in the UK
  • Develop a strategy to tackle childhood obesity including restricting the marketing of junk food to children
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Protect NHS funding, staff and services by stopping Brexit
  • Transform mental health support, giving it parity with physical health and ending long waits for treatment
  • Train more mental health professionals and co-locate them with GPs, the police, at A&E and in prisons
  • Increase investment in primary care and social care to relieve pressure on hospitals
Crime

Campaign points

  • Stop Brexit to protect access to international crime-fighting, terrorism and trafficking resources
  • Increase resources for robust community sentences, reducing the prison population and use of remand
  • New staff to work with people before and after they leave prison, including on skills, health and housing
  • Tackle the drug deaths crisis, sending people caught with drugs for their own use to education and treatment rather than prison
Education

Campaign points

  • Provide free, high-quality childcare for children of working parents from nine months
  • Invest in schools across the UK, with money going to the Scottish government to increase school budgets, recruit teachers and raise attainment
  • Protect Scottish universities from the impact of Brexit and ensure that they are open to all
  • Secure a better deal for teachers by commissioning a McCrone 2 independent expert review of teachers’ terms and conditions
  • Make Pupil Equity Funding permanent, allowing long-term investments to be made for individual children
Work and benefits

Campaign points

  • Reverse cuts to universal credit
  • Reduce the wait for the first benefits payment
  • Introduce universal access to basic services
  • Increase provision of free meals for children, with a particular focus on breakfast
  • Increase access to free sanitary products
Economy

Campaign points

  • Stop Brexit and the “damage” it would do to the economy
  • Programme of capital investment to stimulate growth across all areas of the UK
  • High speed broadband for every home and business, with a particular focus on rural areas
  • Restore corporation tax to 20% – reversing the cut by the Conservatives to 17%
Housing

Campaign points

  • Help build 300,000 homes a year by 2024 across the UK, including social housing especially for social rent
  • End rough sleeping
  • Build new houses to zero-carbon standards and cut fuel bills by reducing energy consumption
  • Insulate all homes by 2030, cutting emissions and fuel bills and ending fuel poverty
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Campaign points

  • UK to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2045 at the latest
  • At least 80% of UK electricity generated from renewables by 2030
  • Plant 60 million trees a year across the UK
  • End opencast coal mining and ban fracking across the UK
Immigration

Key policies

  • Keep EU free movement
  • Give asylum seekers the right to work three months after they have made their application
  • Resettle 10,000 unaccompanied refugee children in the UK over the next 10 years
Transport

Campaign points

  • End the sale of new diesel and petrol cars by 2030
  • Convert the rail network to ultra-low-emission technology by 2035
  • Review all railways closed in Scotland since 1945 with a view to reopening them
  • Oppose Scottish government support for third runway at Heathrow
Democracy

Campaign points

  • Oppose a second referendum on independence
  • Introduce proportional representation for Westminster elections
  • Establish an elected House of Lords
  • Extend the right to vote to 16 and 17-year-olds and all EU citizens who have been living in the UK for five years or more
  • More powers to the Scottish Parliament – as part of plans for a federal UK – and shift powers from Holyrood to local authorities

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Brexit Party

Leader

Nigel Farage

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Leave all institutions of the EU and restore the primacy of UK law
  • Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU, similar to the deals the bloc has with Canada and Japan, with a new deadline of 1 July 2020
  • Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck
  • £200bn spending programme on infrastructure, wi-fi and services for young people
Brexit

Pledges

  • Condemn Boris Johnson’s deal as “not Brexit”
  • Negotiate a free trade agreement with the EU – similar to the deal the bloc has with Canada – with a new deadline of 1 July 2020 to get it signed off
  • Leave the EU and move to World Trade Organisation trading rules if a free trade agreement cannot be struck
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Keep the NHS publically-owned, with no private provision, and free at the point of use
  • Abolish hospital targets
  • 24-hour GP surgeries
  • Open nursing and midwifery professions to people without a degree and introduce a new nursing qualification in social care
Crime

Campaign points

  • Increase police officer numbers
  • Introduce sentence ranges for young offenders to encourage rehabilitation
Education

Campaign points

  • Scrap interest on student loans
  • Remove the 50% target for young people going into higher education
  • Ensure all young people have the choice between a high-quality apprenticeship, setting up their own business or pursuing further or higher education
Work and benefits

Campaign points

  • 12-month review of universal credit and bring in reforms within two years
  • Review the decision to accelerate the timetable for raising women’s state pension age, affecting women born in the 1950s
Economy

Campaign points

  • £200bn spending programme on infrastructure – with money coming from scrapping HS2, not paying the EU divorce bill and halving aid spending
  • Reduce VAT to zero on domestic fuel to reduce energy bills
  • Abolish inheritance tax
  • £10,000 allowance for every UK company before paying corporation tax
  • Abolish business rates for shops outside the M25, funded by a “small online sales tax”
Housing

Campaign points

  • Simplify the planning process for building on brownfield sites
  • Make it easier for councils to borrow from central government to build council houses
Immigration

Pledges

  • Cap on migration of 50,000 a year
  • Introduce a points-based immigration system
Transport

Campaign points

  • Scrap HS2, but invest in road and rail projects across the regions
  • Invest £50bn in road and rail schemes in areas in most need
  • Free wi-fi on all public transport
Democracy

Campaign points

  • Suggest shutting Holyrood

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Scottish Greens

Leaders

Lorna Slater, Patrick Harvie

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Tackle the “climate emergency”
  • Invest in the country through a “Green New Deal”
  • Stop Brexit
  • Support a second referendum on Scottish independence
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Support the UK staying in the EU and campaign for Remain if there is another referendum
  • Put a Withdrawal Agreement back to the people in a referendum, with Remain on the ballot paper
  • Any Brexit deal must allow freedom of movement
  • Preservation of EU environmental regulations and those which protect human health, animal welfare, data and workers’ rights
  • If the UK leaves the EU, indyref2 must be held before the end of any transition period
NHS and care

Manifesto pledges

  • Support a free at the point of use NHS
  • Extend principle of free at the point of use to social care
  • Increase investment in drug and alcohol treatment programmes
Crime

Campaign points

  • Address the causes of crime including unemployment, inequality and addiction
  • Decriminalise drugs to take money away from criminal gangs and support harm reduction
  • Increase investment in drug and alcohol treatment programmes
Education

Campaign points

  • Employ 4,000 more teachers across Scotland
  • Increased spending and reversal of staff cuts for supporting children with additional needs
  • Introduce kindergarten stage and start primary school later, in line with other European countries
  • Support free and inclusive university and college education
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Abolish zero-hours contracts, close the gender pay gap, and ensure that everyone is paid a “real living wage”
  • Bring in a universal basic income
  • Remove differential rates of minimum wage for under-25s and introduce a living wage for everyone
  • Scrap universal credit
  • Support for the Waspi women (Women Against State Pension Inequality)
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • A “Green New Deal” to create 200,000 jobs by 2035 in low-carbon industries – including in renewable energy, retrofitting homes, forestry expansion and decommissioning North Sea oil
  • Phase in a four-day working week
  • Reduce wealth inequality with a tax on the wealthiest 1%, a land value tax, and limit pay inequality
  • Target investment towards communities that depend on fossil fuel extraction
Housing

Campaign points

  • More affordable homes, with rent controls and better rights for tenants
  • More powers for councils to tackle empty homes
  • Nationwide insulation retrofit programme and standards to make all new homes low carbon
Environment

Analysis: Climate promises in detail

Manifesto pledges

  • Reduce emissions by 80% by 2030
  • Create a government-led “Green New Deal” to accelerate the transition to a zero carbon economy
  • Bring grid into public ownership and develop a government-funded support scheme for renewables and reverse cuts to subsidies
  • Make homes more energy efficient
  • A commitment to keep fossil fuels in the ground, including phasing out North Sea oil and gas extraction, and permanently ban fracking across the UK
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Abolish Home Office and replace it with something which respects dignity and human rights
  • Give refugees and asylum seekers an immediate right to work and an income
  • Extend students visas to allow work after graduation
  • Support the rights of EU citizens to live and work in the UK with access to health, education, housing, employment and social security services
Transport

Manifesto pledges

  • Extend free bus travel to under-21s, with long-term aim to provide free public transport for all
  • Prioritise investment in a publicly-owned rail service – including ScotRail – and make bus travel, cycling and walking more accessible
  • Oppose an extra runway at Heathrow and tax breaks to the aviation industry
  • Reform Vehicle Excise Duty and end freeze on fuel duty
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Support a second referendum on Scottish independence
  • Encourage further devolution of powers from Westminster to Holyrood
  • Introduce proportional representation for all elections
  • Extend votes to 16-year-olds and all those normally resident in the country
  • Replacing the House of Lords with an elected second chamber

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Northern Ireland

Democratic Unionist Party

Leader

Arlene Foster

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Defend the Union and oppose a border poll
  • Respect the result of the EU referendum and support a Brexit where Great Britain and Northern Ireland leave together
  • Oppose the backstop and any trade barriers between Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • More and better jobs through extra powers and city deals for all of Northern Ireland
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Respect the democratic outcome of the EU referendum
  • The UK should leave the EU as one country, with no border in the Irish Sea
  • Push for unfettered market access between Northern Ireland and Great Britain
  • Work towards a Brexit deal that benefits Northern Ireland
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Create a Royal Commission to provide recommendations for modernising the social care system
  • Implement the Bengoa report
  • Reduce bureaucracy by abolishing the Health and Social Care Board
  • Refocus resources on community and primary care
  • Achieve greater parity of funding between mental and physical health
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Further expansion of problem-solving courts to reduce reoffending and resuce the cost of the justice system
  • Greater use of Supervised Activity Orders
  • Increase the number of police officers in Northern Ireland to 7,500
  • Extend to Northern Ireland new powers introduced to the Criminal Finances Act in England and Wales
  • Recovered assets to be invested in local communities
Education

Campaign points

  • Reform the schools system and introduce a small schools initiative to ensure isolated communities are adequately represented
  • Reduce bureaucracy and introduce early intervention for pupils with special needs
  • Overhaul career advice with a greater focus on apprenticeships, entrepreneurship and trade skills
  • Invest in coding and computer science to establish Northern Ireland as a leader in digital skills
  • Reform school inspections to provide a more collaborative and cooperative model
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Personal tax allowance should rise in line with inflation each year
  • Raise the national living wage to £10.50 by the end of the parliamentary term
  • End the freeze on benefits by increasing them in line with inflation
  • Restore free television licences for over-75s but in the longer term abolish the licence fee entirely
  • Retain the pensions triple lock and retain winter fuel payments
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • A new industrial strategy to enhance local companies’ strength in global supply chains
  • Overhaul the non-domestic rates system to make it fairer
  • Modernise licensing laws
  • Greater support to help small businesses grow their exports
  • A new programme to create high-quality business leaders
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • Increased investment to new social and affordable housing with an annual social housing target of at least 2,000 new homes a year
  • Turn the Northern Ireland Housing Executive into a strategic housing body, including new powers to tackle the issue of empty homes
  • Create community land trusts for affordable homes
  • Create a town centre generation challenge fund
  • Reintroduce a “living over the shops” scheme to increase the number of people living in town centres
Environment

Campaign points

  • Increase financial support for farmers
  • Ensure agriculture is protected in post-Brexit trade deals
  • A new fisheries bill for the territorial waters of the UK
  • Meet the net-zero carbon neutral target for Northern Ireland by 2050
  • Ban all new petrol and diesel car sales by 2035
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Develop a points-based immigration system
  • Ensure any new system addresses labour needs through skills-gap lists for all parts of the UK
Transport

Campaign points

  • A high speed rail link between Belfast and Dublin
  • Expand the number of public buses and move from diesel to alternative energy
  • Lobby for a bridge connecting Northern Ireland and Scotland, if the current feasibility study is positive
  • Cancel the High Speed 2 railway line
  • Build a third runway at Heathrow Airport
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Repeal the Fixed Term Parliaments Act
  • Cabinet to meet in Belfast once a year
  • Reform the House of Lords by electing two-thirds of its members
  • Remove the need for political parties to designate as “unionist”, “nationalist” or “other” at Stormont

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Sinn Fein

Leader

Mary Lou McDonald

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Secure a date for a referendum on a united Ireland
  • Oppose Brexit
  • Achieve a zero-carbon society
Brexit

Key policies

  • Oppose Brexit
  • Retain Common Agriculture Policy funding
  • Protect the Good Friday Agreement in any future Brexit deal
  • Special status for Northern Ireland, with no unionist veto
  • Northern Ireland to automatically re-enter the EU in the event of Irish unification
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Mental and physical health given equal weighting in the health service
  • “Fair pay” for health and social care workers
  • Deliver the Medical School in Magee
  • Develop all-Ireland health services
  • Establish fully-staffed primary care teams in GP surgeries
Crime

Key policies

  • Prioritise front-line community policing
  • Tackle domestic violence by outlawing coercive control and behaviour
  • Strengthen hate crime legislation and define sectarianism in law
  • Ban the public from attending trials involving serious sexual offences
Education

Campaign points

  • Restore the Department of Education budget to at least its pre-austerity levels in real terms
  • Investigate allegations of malpractice and unacceptable delays in children’s statementing processes
  • Deliver pay award for teaching staff
  • Increase investment in literacy and numeracy support for children in the most disadvantaged areas
  • Keep student fees “affordable”
Work and benefits

Key policies

  • Abolish zero-hours contracts
  • Introduce a real living wage
  • Establish a new “welfare mitigation package” that protects the most vulnerable
Economy

Key policies

  • Create more “well-paid jobs”, promote regional balance, reduce carbon emissions, and raise productivity
  • Foster an open, rights-based society that a range of people want to live, work, and invest in
  • Strengthen the all-Ireland economy and align the north with the higher growth rate in the south
  • Prioritise rural areas for broadband investment
Housing

Key policies

  • Increase social housing stock, particularly in areas of highest need
  • Improve standards and security of tenure in the private rented sector
  • More affordable housing
Environment

Campaign points

  • Establish an independent environmental protection agency
  • Introduce a Climate Change Act with ambitious targets for reducing carbon emissions
  • Moratorium on the exploration and extraction of fossil fuels, and a ban on fracking
  • Produce a new energy strategy that prioritises renewable energy
  • Deliver a green new deal that creates jobs in green industries
Immigration

Key policies

  • No policies announced in this area.
Transport

Campaign points

  • Increase investment in public and rural transport
  • Deliver key infrastructure projects such as the A5 and A6
  • Encourage low emission vehicles
  • Invest in cycle lanes and walk ways
  • Invest in rural roads
Democracy

Key policies

  • Extend Irish presidential voting rights to Northern Ireland and diaspora
  • Increase co-operation between local authorities north and south
  • Secure a date for a referendum on Irish unity in line with the Good Friday Agreement
  • Ensure the Irish Government prepares a plan for unity
  • Implement an Irish Language Act

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Alliance Party

Leader

Naomi Long

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Oppose hard Brexit and support a second referendum
  • Restore Stormont Assembly
  • Invest in health care, education and skills
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Support another referendum to reconsider Brexit, with remain as an option
  • The whole of the UK remaining in the single market and customs union
  • Support a special deal that helps the Northern Ireland economy and defends the Good Friday Agreement
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • The health service should remain universal and free at the point of use
  • Focus on prevention and early intervention
  • Make social care free at the point of access
  • Implement the Bengoa reforms to transform the health service
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Retain UK participation in the European Arrest Warrant scheme following Brexit
  • Reduce delays in court cases
  • Strong opposition to domestic and gendered violence
  • Extend to Northern Ireland unexplained wealth orders, which compel people to reveal the sources of their unexplained wealth
  • Continue to support the proposals of the Gillen Review in prosecuting serious sexual offences
Education

Campaign points

  • Strong support for integrated education
  • Advocate a range of alternative post-primary pathways
  • Greater focus on Stem subjects and computer coding
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Stronger regulation of the gig economy, and oppose deregulation of employment rights
  • Stronger focus on careers advice
  • Support a fairer UK-wide welfare system and revised package of welfare mitigations for NI
  • Scrap the “bedroom tax”
  • Overhaul bereavement benefits
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • Stronger focus on productivity and competitiveness issues
  • Investment in skills training through apprenticeships, further education and hybrid apprenticeship degrees
  • Strengthening NI’s research base, and combating threats from Brexit
  • Simplify the payment and administration of income tax and national insurance
  • Increase the tax-free allowance for income tax so that lower-earners keep more of what they earn
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • Legislate to ensure the housing executive encourages and facilitates mixed housing
  • Support for increased housebuilding in NI to address housing pressures
Environment

Campaign points

  • Put tackling climate change at the heart of all policy
  • Accelerate switch to less polluting forms of energy
  • Ensure protection of nature and ecosystems
  • Reduce the UK’s net greenhouse gas emissions to zero by 2030
  • Support the continued existence of the all-island energy market
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Guarantee the rights of EU citizens resident in UK
  • Regional flexibility in immigration strategy
  • A fairer and more humane immigration and asylum system
  • Limited immigration powers to be handed to the Northern Ireland Assembly in the event of Brexit
  • Remove the cap on non-EU migrants
Transport

Campaign points

  • Emphasis on public and sustainable transport, promotion of cycling and walking
  • A greater investment in electric vehicles
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Scrap first-past-the-post and introduce a single transferable vote system for Westminster elections
  • Votes at 16
  • Elected House of Lords
  • Transform Stormont by ending the process of community designation and reforming the Petition of Concern system
  • Hold a UK-wide constitutional convention to develop a fully codified constitution

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People Before Profit

Leader

Collective leadership

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Scrap welfare reforms include PIP, Universal Credit and the bedroom tax
  • Vote against any Conservative Brexit deal and oppose a hard border or no-deal scenario
  • Tackle the climate crisis
  • Develop a state-owned National Childcare Agency
  • End the public sector pay freeze
Brexit

Key policies

  • Oppose a no-deal Brexit
  • Argue Boris Johnson’s deal could entrench sectarianism in the NI Assembly
  • Oppose a post-Brexit trade deal with the US leading to the erosion of public services
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Against further cuts
  • End private sector involvement in the care system
  • GPs to become health service employees
Crime

Key policies

  • Support the disbandment of all paramilitary groups
  • End all punishment shootings
  • Pursue full accounting for the role of state agents in the Troubles
Education

Campaign points

  • Bring an end to selective and segregated education
  • Address poor educational outcomes based on poverty
  • End tuition fees in higher education
Work and benefits

Key policies

  • Scrap welfare reforms include PIP, Universal Credit and the bedroom tax
  • Develop a state-owned National Childcare Agency
  • Repeal all anti-trade union laws
  • Ban zero hours contracts and implement a real living wage
Economy

Key policies

  • Where possible “reckless employers” should be taken over by the state to preserve jobs
  • Tax the rich more in order to redistribute wealth
  • Introduce a progressive local income tax in place of the current rates system
  • Oppose privatisation of any public services, including private finance initiative (PFI) projects
  • Oppose the reduction of corporation tax in NI
Housing

Key policies

  • Carry out a building programme for social housing
Environment

Campaign points

  • All reserves of energy – both renewable and fossil fuels – be brought into public ownership
  • Introduce a zero waste approach to waste management
  • Offer more support to small farmers
Immigration

Key policies

  • All immigrants to be made welcome
  • Migrant workers to retain their full rights to work and travel
  • Oppose racism in all its forms
Transport

Campaign points

  • Free public transport for everyone
Democracy

Key policies

  • Extend voting rights to 16-year-olds
  • Support a border poll

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SDLP

Leader

Colum Eastwood

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Revoke Article 50
  • Restore power sharing and get Stormont working again
  • Reform the benefits system
  • Tackle the climate emergency and move to a carbon neutral economy by 2030
  • Pursue justice, truth and accountability for victims of NI’s Troubles
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Want to revoke Article 50, but will fight for another referendum if necessary, with the option of remaining in the EU
  • Want to retain free movement of people, goods and services and maintain the common travel area after Brexit
  • Oppose any hardening of the Irish border in violation of the Good Friday Agreement
  • Want to secure human and workers’ rights and protections derived from EU legislation and ensure NI continues to receive EU funding
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Oppose any attempts to privatise the health service
  • Give health service staff a pay rise and ensure they earn the same as their counterparts in Great Britain
  • Invest in primary care provision and roll out multidisciplinary teams to enhance general practice
  • Support the development of a medical school at Magee in Londonderry
  • Increased provisions for north-south healthcare including a joined-up approach to the ambulance service in border areas
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Any person convicted of alcohol-related crime must serve at least a community service order, if not a prison sentence. Suspended sentences would be unacceptable
  • Establish an all-island register for animal-abusers with British and Irish governments
  • Increase resources for the PSNI
  • Devlop a domestic violence startegy across government departments to tackle domestic abuse and gender violence
Education

Campaign points

  • Comprehensive review of primary and post-primary curriculums to ensure relevance to modern life
  • Any future funding package for NI to include ring-fenced resources for education
  • Reinstate the requirement to study a modern language to GCSE level
  • Oppose academic selection for schools
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Increase childcare provision from 12.5 hours per week to 20 hours per week, potentially increasing to 30 hours once new budget is agreed
  • Regulation of zero-hours contracts
  • Introduce a “true living wage” to reflect rising costs of living
  • Scrap universal credit, the bedroom tax and the two-child limit
  • End the freeze on benefits
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • Provide regionally balanced investment in infrastructure, job creation and young workers
  • Support traditional primary, manufacturing and services sectors while prioritising new sectors where there is potential for growth and exports
  • Abolish Air Passenger Duty for flights from Northern Ireland
  • Devolve corporation tax powers to the Northern Ireland Assembly
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • Prioritise spending on social housing and new build programmes to provide 3,000 new social homes each year
  • Expand affordable housing schemes to give more first-time buyers the chance to own their own home
  • Work to tackle segregation with new-build schemes and in existing neighbourhoods
  • New housing to be prioritised in areas of greatest need
Environment

Campaign points

  • Promote the creation of low-carbon alternatives to high-carbon industries, including help for carbon-intensive industries to become more carbon neutral
  • Support electric vehicle subsidies and aim to end the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2030
  • Emergency legislation to incentivise moving to a carbon neutral economy by 2030
  • Ban fracking
  • A moratorium on strip mining and precious mineral/metal mining until it can be proven there is no risk to the environment or public health
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Commit to international co-operation, the values of the EU and free movement of citizens
  • Challenge Eurosceptic parties that exploit “people’s worst fears”
  • Migrants helped to develop knowledge of society and language, with access to education and services
  • Make NI an attractive place for young people to settle and curb economic “brain drain”
Transport

Campaign points

  • Fast-track funding to upgrade Northern Ireland’s road network
  • Enhance the Belfast to Dublin train service to reduce journey times
  • Expand the rail network, including stations at Belfast International, Belfast City and City of Derry airports
  • Improve cycling, with more greenways, cycle lanes and cycle infrastructure
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Support lowering the voting age to 16
  • Aspire to Irish unification
  • Reform the petition of concern veto mechanism at the Northern Ireland Assembly

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Green Party

Leader

Clare Bailey

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Prioritise climate change over Brexit
  • Restore Stormont Assembly and executive
  • Wealth tax of 2% per year introduced for the wealthiest 1% of people
Brexit

Key policies

  • Negotiate access to the EU single market for NI industries
  • Guarantee the rights of EU citizens living in UK
  • Ensure free movement of people across UK and Ireland
  • Maintain current EU environmental, human and workers’ rights protections
  • A second EU referendum with the option to remain in the EU
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Oppose privatisation of health care services
  • Promote community health care
  • Treat drug addiction as a health problem, not a crime
Crime

Key policies

  • Introduce early intervention initiatives to tackle the root causes of crime
  • Raise the age of criminal responsibility
  • Ensure transgender prisoners are housed in appropriate facilities for their gender
  • Place a greater focus on domestic and sexual violence and abuse
Education

Campaign points

  • Introduce universal early years education provision
  • Introduce free school meals for all primary pupils
  • End university tuition fees
Work and benefits

Key policies

  • 40% of board members in public companies and public sector boards to be women
  • Worker representation to be established on the boards of larger companies
  • Ban “zero-hours” contracts
  • Increase child benefit
Economy

Key policies

  • Wealth tax of 2% per year introduced for the wealthiest 1% of people
  • Scrap planned reduction in corporation tax and increase it to 30% for bigger companies
  • Introduce a “radical” reform of inheritance tax
  • Increase the Northern Ireland block grant from Westminster
Housing

Key policies

  • Incentivise the building of 2,000 energy efficient social homes per year
  • Introduce rent control legislation
  • Bring empty homes back into use
Environment

Campaign points

  • Change planning policy to be based on sustainability
  • Introduce extra support for small farmers
  • Encourage organic agriculture
  • Establish an independent environmental protection agency for NI
  • Ban the hunting of animals with dogs in NI
Immigration

Key policies

  • Ensure the treatment of refugees after arrival meets good human rights practice
Transport

Campaign points

  • Free bus travel for young people and students
  • Subsidise ferry journeys between Northern Ireland and Great Britain
  • Promote cycling infrastructure
Democracy

Key policies

  • Scrap first-past-the-post and introduce proportional representation to Westminster and establish a fully-elected House of Lords
  • Lower the voting age to 16
  • Register the party at Stormont as “other” – not nationalist or unionist
  • Recognise that climate change is more important than constitutional change

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Ulster Unionist Party

Leader

Steve Aiken

Top priorities

Top priorities

  • Prioritise the union of the UK over Brexit
  • Remain in the EU if the choice is between that or Boris Johnson’s Brexit deal
  • Move to direct rule if devolution is not restored by mid-January
  • Declare a healthcare emergency
  • Oppose the creation of the Historical Investigations Unit to investigate Troubles-era offences
Brexit

Manifesto pledges

  • Prioritise the union of the UK over Brexit
  • Remain in the EU if the choice is between that or Boris Johnson’s Brexit deal
  • If Britain leaves the EU, it should leave as one country
NHS and care

Campaign points

  • Declare a healthcare emergency in Northern Ireland and compel the next government to immediately intervene with special measures
  • Responsibility for health services should be formally transferred back to Westminster
  • Ring-fence £1bn previously announced from Barnett formula funding for heatlh care
  • Borrow an extra £200m in 2020/21 for trusts to undertake additional elective care activity
Crime

Manifesto pledges

  • Increase policing numbers to 7,500 full-time officers
  • Allow the director of public prosecutions to refer lenient sentences for animal abuse to the Court of Appeal
  • Oppose the creation of the Historical Investigations Unit to investigate Troubles-era offences
  • Dissident Republicans to be treated as criminals in prison without special privilege
  • Maximum prison sentences imposed for paramilitary activity and organised crime
Education

Campaign points

  • Promote a single state education system where children of all faiths – and none – are educated together
  • End religious discrimination in the appointment of teachers
  • Support the lifting of the cap on numbers in order to allow more students to study and stay in Notrhern Ireland
  • Review interest rates on student loans
  • Ensure any additional funding for schools in England is reflected in Northern Ireland by ring-fencing funds
Work and benefits

Manifesto pledges

  • Extend mitigation measures on key issues such as the bedroom tax, which are due to expire in March
  • Restore TV licenses for over-75s and retain the triple-lock protection for pensions
  • Create and implement a new childcare strategy
Economy

Manifesto pledges

  • Cut VAT to 5% for the repair, maintenance and improvement of existing homes
  • Cut VAT to 9% for the hospitality sector
  • Abolish Air Passenger Duty on flights from Northern Ireland
Housing

Manifesto pledges

  • Make it mandatory for properties to meet a minimum energy efficiency rating
  • A structural reform of social housing provision, including the separation of landlord functions from the Northern Ireland Housing Executive
  • Place a duty to prevent homelessness on statutory services such as the NHS and prisons
Environment

Campaign points

  • A new Environmental Protection Act which would have legal targets for net zero emissions in Northern Ireland by 2035
  • Create a new Environmental Protection Agency
  • Introduce a statutory duty to tackle invasive species and halt the rate at which local species and habitats are declining
  • Plant one million new trees by 2025
Immigration

Manifesto pledges

  • Recognise the importance – and in some sectors the necessity – of attracting migrant workers
  • Reject the minimum salary qualification of £30,000 for migrants, which the government has proposed to bring in after Brexit
Transport

Campaign points

  • Promote sustainable travel, implementing traffic-free cycling infrastructure
  • Improve Belfast’s York Street Interchange as a number one infrastructure priority
  • Demand a multi-year road maintenance budget
  • Improve key rail routes – such as the Antrim line – and create new connections, including ones to Belfast International Airport
Democracy

Manifesto pledges

  • Lower the voting age to 16 by 2021
  • Examine how the Act of Union can be updated to consolidate the relationship between Westminster and the devolved administrations
  • Introduce rules so ministers and special advisers at Stormont who break the code of conduct are investigated and held to account

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For Rachael Farrington, this suggests that the best way to bring about change is to turn up and vote, even if your preferred candidate has no realistic chance of winning.

She set up the Voting Counts campaign when she was at school after discovering that her friends didn’t plan to vote.

And she believes that voting for a candidate who doesn’t win will still put pressure on the winning candidate to take notice of your concerns, adding: “If you don’t have your voice heard someone else’s will be so don’t let other people make those decisions for you”.

Even if you can’t bring yourself to vote for any of the parties or candidates, she argues, it is better to spoil your ballot rather than stay at home because it will “show a difference between disaffection with the choice available and disinterest”.

So what can be done about it?

Willie Sullivan, of the Electoral Reform Society, agrees that many people don’t think the political system works for them, and have effectively decided to opt-out.

He says some non-voters believe that taking part in the election will give legitimacy to a political system they believe is broken.

Turnout at general elections has been lower in recent elections than it has been at any point since the end of World War 2.

UK General Election turnout

And Mr Sullivan believes big changes are needed if that trend is to be reversed – including more proportional electoral system, the replacement of the House of Lords with an elected second chamber and the decentralising of power away from Westminster.

He also says government policies are often specifically targeted at swing voters and marginal constituencies – which can lead parties to take their traditional heartlands for granted.

Mr Sullivan added: “This disengagement and alienation is about a lack of power. Non-voters are not going to endorse a system that perpetuates that.”

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